Author Topic: CHAPTER 3  (Read 394 times)


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« on: April 07, 2019, 05:22:27 PM »
3.1 After hearing the text, 'unknown to those who know well, and known to those who do not know' etc. (II.3), some people of dull intellect may have this kind of delusion: 'It is seen that whatever exists is known through the valid means of cognition; and whatever does not exist remains unknown, is like the horns of a hare, and abosolutely non-existent. Similarly this Brahman, being unknown, is certainly nonexistent.' Lest there be this delusion, this story is begun. For the subsequent passages are seen to be leading to this conclusion: 'Since that very Brahman is the ruler in every way, the supreme Deity of even the deities, the supreme Lord over the lordly beings, inscrutable, the cause of the victory of gods, and the cause of the defeat of the devils, therefore, how can It be non-existent?' Or the story is meant to eulogize the knowledg of Brahman. How? By saying that it was surely by virtue of the knowledge of Brahman, that Fire and other gods attained supremacy over the gods, and Indra got still greater pre-eminence. Or (through the story) it is shown that Brahman is inscrutable, inasmuch as Fire and others, powerful though they are, knew Brahman with sheer difficulty, and so also did Indra, even though he is the ruler of the gods. Or the whole thing is meant to enjoin and injunction regarding the secret teaching (bout meditations) that will follow ['The realization of the Self as Brahman, which is meant for the most advanced ones and which is not an object of knowledge, has been spoken of earlier. Later will be stated the meditation on the qualified Brahman which is for the less advanced people. The following passages present that meditation, since the injunction for it is clearly to be seen (in IV.6-7). so the real significance lies in this. As for the other interpretations (advanced by Sankara), they are merely by way of showing posibilities.'-A.G.] (IV. 4-7). Or the story is meant to show, that apart from the knowledge of Brahman, all notions of agentship etc. that creatures possess, as for instance the conceit of the gods with regard to victory etc., are false. Brahma, the supreme Brahman already spoken of; ha, verily; devebhyah, for the sake of the gods; vijigye, achieved victory. In a fight between the gods and the devils, Brahman, after conquering the devils, the enemies of the world and transgressors of divine rules, gave to the gods the victory and its results for ensuring the stability of the world. Tasya ha Brahmanah vijaye, in that victory which has, indeed, Brahman's; devah, the gods, Fire etc.; amahiyanta, became elated.

3.2 Then, not knowing that this victory and this glory belonged to God who sits in the hearts as the indwelling Self-omniscient, dispenser of the fruits of all works of all creatures, omnipotent, and desirous of encompassing the stability of the world-te, they, those gods; aiksanta, thought; 'Ayam- vijayah, this victory; is eva asmakam, indeed ours, is of ourselves, who are limited by our personalities as Fire and others. Asmakam eva, ours indeed, and not of God as our indwelling Self. is ayam mahima, this glory evidenced by such states as of Fire, Air, Indra, etc. which is experienced by us as the result of victory. This has not been achieved by God who is our indwelling Self.' Brahman ha, surely; vijajnau, knew; tat, that, that erroneous deliberation of those whose thoughts were being directed by a false self-conceit; for Brahman is omnicient by virtue of being the director of the senses of all creatures. Noticing this false idea of the gods, and thinking, 'In order that the gods may not be thus defeated like the devils, as a consequence of their vainglory, I shall, out of grace for them, favour the gods by removing their presumptuousness'-with this idea, It, ha, indeed; for their sake, pradurbabhuva, appeared as an object of perception; tebhyay, to the gods; through an unprecedentedly wonderful and astonishing form created by Brahman's own power of Maya, ['The yoga, or the combination of attributes-Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas is Maya. Through the power of that.'-A.G.] It appeared as an abject of perception to the senses of the gods. The gods na vyajanata, did not comprehend; tat, that , the Brahman which had become manifest; kim iti, as to what; idam yaksam, this venerable, great Being, might be.

3.3 Te, they-those gods who failed to know, It, and were desirous of knowing It, but had fear in their hearts; abruvan, said; agnim, to Fire, (lit.) who goes ahead (of all); and who is jataveda, almost omniscient: [Agni precedes all other deities (agre gacchati) in receiving oblations at sacrifices; and Jataveda is one who knows (veda) all that is created (jata).] O jataveda, you being powerful among us; vijanihi, thoroughly find out about; etat, this Yaksa that is in our view; kim etat yaksam iti, as to what this Yaksa (venerable Being) is.

3.4 Saying, 'Tatha, so be it', iti, this much; Fire abhiadravat, approached, moved, towards It, tat, towards that Yaksa. Tam, to him, to Fire, who had approached and was desirous of asking, but had become silent becasue of absence of arrogance in Its presence; the Yaksa, abhyavadat, said; 'Kah asi iti, who are you?' Thus being asked by Brahman, Fire said, 'Agnih vai, I am Fire (agni) by name, and am also familiarly known as Jataveda, showing thereby his self-importance consisting in his being well known through the two names.

3.5 To him who had spoken thus, Brahman said, 'Tasmin tvayi, in you who are such. who possess such famous names and attributes; kim viryam, what power, what ability, is there?' He replied, 'Daheyam, I can burn up, redcue to ashes; idam sarvam, all this creation that moves and does not move; prthivyam, on this earth;' The word prthivyam is used illustratively (to indicate everything), for even things that are in the region above the earth are surely consumed by fire.

3.6 Tasmai, for him who had such presumption; Brahman trnam nudadhau, placed a straw, in front of Fire. Being told by Brahman, 'Etat, this mere straw; daha, burn, in my front. If you are not able to burn it give up your vanity as a consumer everywhere., (Fire) tat upapreyaya, went near that straw; sarvajavena, with the speed born of the fullest enthusiasm. Going there, tat, that thing; na sasaka dagdhum, he could not burn. That Fire, being unable to burn the straw and becoming ashamed and foiled in his promise, silently nivavrte, withdrew; tatah eva, from that Yaksa; and went back towards the gods (to tell them), 'Na asakam, I did not succeed; vijnatum, in knowing fully; etat, this Yaksa: yat etat yaksam, as to what this Yaksa is.'

3.7 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment upon this mantra.
3.8 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment upon this mantra.
3.9 Sri Sankaracharya did not comment upon this mantra

3.10 Atha, after that; they said to Air; 'O Air, find out' etc. bears the same meaning as before. Vayu (air) is so, called because it blows, goes, or carries smell. Matarisva means that which travels (svayati) in space (matari). Idam sarvam api, all this; adadiya, I can take up, blow away. Yad idam, prthivyam etc. is just as explained earlier.

3.11 Atha indram abruvan maghavan etat vijanihi etc. is to be explaned as before. Indra, who is a great Lord and is called Maghava because of strength, tat abhyadravat, approached that Yaksa. Tasmat, from him, from Indra who had approached Itself (Yaksa); that Brahman, tirodadhe, vanished from sight. Brahman did not so much as grant him an interview, so that Indra's pride at being Indra might be totally eradicated.

3.12 The space, or the part of the space where that Yaksa vanished after revealing Itself, and the space where Indra also was at the time of the desappearance of Brahman, tasmin eva akase, in that very space; sah, he, Indra, stayed on, deliberating in his mind, 'What is this Yaksa?' He did not return like Fire etc. Understanding his devotion to Yaksa, Knowledge (of Brahman) made Her appearance as a woman, in the form of Uma. Sah, he, Indra, ajagama, approached; tam, Her, Uma; who was bahusobhamanam, superbly charming-Knowledge being the most fascinating of all fascinating things, the attribute 'superbly charming' is appropriate for it. He approached her, haimavatim, who was as though attired in dress of gold, i.e. exquistiely beautiful. Or, Uma Herself is Haimavati, the daughter of Himavat (Himalayas). Thinking that, since She is ever in association with the omniscient God, She must be able to know, Indra approached Her; (and) tam, to Her, to Uma; uvaca, said, 'Tell me, kim etat yaksam iti, what is this Yaksa-that showed Itself and vanished?'