Author Topic: CHAPTER 4  (Read 257 times)


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« on: April 07, 2019, 05:32:41 PM »
4.1 Sa, She; uvaca ha, said, 'Brahma iti, It was Brahman. Brahmanah vai vijaye, in the victory of God, indeed: The devils were conquered only by God, and you were mere instruments there. In the victory that was really His, you mahyadhvam, became elated, you attained glory.' The word etat, in this way, is used adverbially (to modify the verb). 'But yours is this vaingloriousness: "(Asmakam eva ayam vijayah, asmakam eva ayam mahima)-ours is this victory, ours is this glory"' (III. 2). Tatah ha eva, from that, from that utterance of Uma, to be sure; Indra, vidamcakara, learned; brahma iti, that It was Brahman. The emphatic limitation; implied in tatah ha eva, from that alone, to be sure, implies (that he came to learn) not independently.

4.2 Since these gods-Fire, Air, and Indra-approached Brahman through conversation, visualization, etc., tasmat, therefore; ete devah, these gods; atitaram iva, surpassed greatly, through their own excellence, i.e. good luck comprising power, quality, etc.; anyan devan, the other gods. The word iva is meaningless or is used for the sake of imphasis. Yat agnih vayuh indrah, for, (the gods) viz Fire, Air and Indra; te, they, those gods; hi, indeed, nedistham pasparsuh, [A different reading is pasprsuh.] most proximately, intimately, touched; enat, this Brahman, through the process of conversation etc. with Brahman, as described earlier. Hi, because, because of the further reason that; te they; being prathamah (should be prathamah) first, i.e. being prominent; vidamcakara, (should be vidamcakruh), knew; enat, It Brahman,-that 'this is Brahman.'

4.3 Since even Fire and Air knew from the words of Indra alone, and since Indra heard frist from Uma's words that It was Brahman, tasmat vai indrah atitaram iva, therefore, Indra did excel (the other deities). Hi sah enat nedistham pasparsa, for he thouched It most proximately; sah hi enat prathamah vidamcakara brahma iti-this senentece has been already explained.

4.4 Tasya, of the Brahman under discussion; esah adesah, this is the instruction through analogy. That analogy through which the instruction about the incomparable Brahman is imparted is called adesah. What is that? Yat etat, that fact, which is well known among people as the flash of lighting. Since vidyutah vyadyutat, cannot mean that Brahman flashed (vyadyutat) (by borrowing Its light) from lightning, (Vidyutah) ['The meaning, "It flashed from lightning" ' is inadmissible, for Brahman being self-effulgent, Its effulgence cannot be dependent on others. The meaning, "It performed the flashing of lightning," is unacceptable, since the flash that belongs to something cannot be produced by another.'-A.G.] therefore the meaning has to be assumed to be 'the flash of lightning.' A, like, is used in the sense of comparison. The meaning is: 'It is like the flash of lightning'; and (this meaning is acceptable) since it is seen in a different Vedic text, 'Comparable to a single flash of lightning' (Br. II. iii. 6); for Brahman disappeared after revealing Itself but once to the gods like lightning. Or the word tejah (brilliance) has to be supplied after the word vidyutah (of lightning). Vyadyutat (in this case) means, flashed; (and) a means as it were. The purport is: It was as though, the brilliance of lightning flashed but once. The word iti is meant to call back to memory the word adesa; (so the meaning is): This is the adesa, the analogy. The word it is used for joining together. (So the sense is) : Here is another analogy for It. What is that one? Nyamimisat, winked, as the eye did the act of winking. The causative form (in nyamimisat) is used in the same sense as the root itself. The a is used here, too, in the sense of comparison. The meaning is: And it was like the opening and shutting of the eye with regard to its object. Iti adhidaivatam, this is by way of showing analogies of Brahman in a divine context.

4.5 Atha, after this; is being told the analogical instruction adhyatmam, in the context of the soul, with regard to the indwelling Self. Yat etat, that which is a known fact; viz that etat, to this Brahman; gacchati iva ca manah, though the mind goes, as it were, the mind enters into Brahman, as it were, encompasses It as an object. And the fact that anena, by that mind; the spiritual aspirant; abhiksnam, repeatedly; upasmarati, remembers intimately; etat, this Brahman; and the sankalpah, thought of the mind with regard to Brahman. Since Brahman has got the mind as Its limiting adjunct, It seems to be revealed by such states of the mind as thought, memory, etc., by which It seems to be objectified. Therefore this is an instruction about Brahman, through analogy, in the context of the soul. In the divine context, Brahman has the attribute of revealing Itself quickly like lightning and winking ['The winking of the eye is rapid-this is well known; similar is Brahman's power of acting quickly. Its attribute in the divine context is the power to act quickly with regard to creation etc., since there is an absence of obstruction and efforts. The light of lightning covers the whole world at once. Similarly Brahman is unsurpassingly bright by nature, and It accomplishes creation etc. of everything quickly, and It is possessed of supreme glory.'-A.G.]; and in the context of the soul, It has the attribute of manifesting Itself simultaneously with the states of the mind. ['One should meditate thus: "Towards this Brahman, that is of the nature of light, my mind proceeds and there is rests." The instruction in this form is the instruction in the context of the individual soul. The indwelling Brahman becomes revealed to one who meditates thus: "The thoughts in my mind constantly revolve round Brahman."'-A.G.] This is the instruction about Brahman through analogy. The need for this teaching about Brahman through analogy is that It becomes easily comprehensible to people of dull intellect when instruction is thus imparted. For the unconditioned Brahman, as such, cannot be comprehended by people of dull intellect.

4.6 Further, tat, that Brahman; is ha, certainly; tadvanam nama: tadvanam is derived from the words tasya, his, and vanam, adorable; It is adorable to all creatures, since It is their indwelling Self. Therefore Brahman is tadvanam nama, well known as the one to be adored by all beings. Since it is tadvana, therefore tadvanam iti, through this very name, tadvana, which is indicative of Its quality; It is upasitavyam, to be meditated on. The text states the results of meditation [In place of 'upaswasya, of meditation', some read 'upasakasya, to the meditator'.] through this name; sah yah, anyone who; veda, meditates on; etat, the aforesaid Brahman; evam, thus, as possessed of the qualities mentioned above; sarvani bhutani, all beings; ha, certainly; enam, to him, this meditator; abhisamvanchanti, pray, as (they do) to Brahman.

4.7 After being instructed thus, the disciple said to the teacher, 'Bhoh, sir; bruhi, speak of upanisadam, the secret thing that is to be thought about'; iti. To the student who had spoken thus, the teacher said, 'Te to you; upanisad, the secret knowledge; ukta, has been spoken of.' 'What is that again?'-to such a question he answers, 'Te, to you; upanisadam vava abruma iti, I have spoken this very secret; brahmim, relating to Brahman, to the supreme Self- since the knowledge already imparted relates to the supreme Self.' For the sake of (distinguishing) what follows, the teacher delimits (his teaching) thus: 'The Upanisad that I have told you consists of nothing but what has already been presented as the Upanisad of the supreme Self.'

Objection: What motive could have prompted the disciple, who had heard the Upanisad about the supreme Self, to put this question: 'Sir, speak of the Upanisad'? If, now, the question related to what had beeen already heard, then it is useless, isasmuch as it involved a repetition like the grinding over again of what had already been ground. If, again, the earlier Upanisad was incomplete, then it was not proper to conclude it by mentioning its result thus: 'Having turned away from this world, the intelligent ones become immortal' (II. 5). Hence the question is surely improper even if it relates to some unexplained portion of the Upanisad already presented, inasmuch as no remainder was left over. What then is the intention of the questioner?
Answer: We say that this is the intention (of the disciple) : 'Does the secret teaching already imparted need anything as an accessory, or does it not need any? If it does, tell me of the secret teaching with regard to that needed accessory. Or if it does not, then like Pippalada make the clinching assertion; "There is nothing beyond this" (Pr. VI. 7).' Thus this clincher of the teacher; 'I have told you the Upanisad' is justified.

Objection: May it not be urged that this is not a concluding remark, inasmuch as the teacher has something more to add in the statement: 'Concentration, cessation from sense-objects, rites, etc. are its legs' etc. (IV. 8).
Answer: It is true that a fresh matter is introduced by the teacher; but this is not done either by way of bringing in something as an attributive constituent (sesa) of the Upanisad or as an accessory (sahakari) to it, ['By the word sesa is implied an attributive part contributing to the production of the effect (of the main rite). By the word sahakari is implied something that need not necessarily be a constituent, but can be combined (with the principal rite).'-A.G. Both have a bearing on the result.] but rather as a means for the acquisition of the knowledge of Brahman, because tapas (concentration) etc., occurring as they do in the same passage along with the Vedas and their supplementaries, are given an equal status with the latter, and because neither the Vedas nor the science of pronounciation and euphony (siksa) etc., which are their suppliementaries, can directly be either attributive constituents of the knowledge of Brahman or its helpful accessories.

Objection: Should not even things that occur in the same passage be put to separate uses according to their appropriateness? Just as the mantras, occurring at the end of a sacrifice, in the form of a hymn meant for the invocation of (many) deities, are applied with respect to the individual deities concernedc, similarly it can be imagined that concentration, self-control, rites, truth, etc., will either be attributive constituents of the knowledge of Brahman or be helpful accessories (in accordance with their respective appropriateness). [At the end of all sacrifices, the deities are invoked with the hyman beginning with: Now although in this hymn many deities are mentioned, still, it is proper to invoke at the end the diety to whom any particular sacrifice is made, the hymn itself has to be applied in accord with that propriety. Similarly concentration etc., will themselves be used as attributive constituents of knowledge.'-A.G.] As for the Vedas and their subsidiaries, they are means for either knowledge of the Self or rites by virtue of their respective meanings (ideas). In this way this division becomes appropriate when significance of words, relation (of things denoted), and reason are taken into consideration. Suppose we advance such an argument?
Answer: No, because this is illogical. This division does not certainly accord with facts, because it is not reasonable that the knowledge of Brahman, which repels all ideas of distinction of deeds, doers and results, should have dependence on any attributive constituent, or any relation with any helpful accessory, and because the knowledge of Brahman and its result, freedom, are concerned only with the Self which is unassociated with any object. 'He who wants emancipation should for ever give up all works together with their instruments, becuase it is known only by the man of renunication. The state of the supreme Reality that is the same as the indwelling Self is attained by the man of renunciation.' Therefore knowledge cannot reasonably have work either as an accessory or as a complement. Therefore the division of (concentration etc.) on the analogy of the invocation through hymn, occurring at the end of a sacrifice, is quite inappropriate. Hence it is proper to say that the question and the answer are meant for fixing a limit thus: 'The secret teaching that has been imparted extends thus far only; it is adequate for the attainment of knowledge without depending on anything else.'

4.8 Concentration etc. are the means for the acquisition, tasyai, (should be tasyah), of that secret teaching (Upanisad), regarding Brahman which I thus spoke before you. Tapah, the concentration of the body, the senses, and the mind; damah, cessation (form sense objects); karma, rites, Agnihotra etc. (are the means); for it is found that the knowledge of Brahman arises in a man who has attained the requisite holiness by means of purification of the heart through these. For it is a matter of experience that, even though Brahman is spoken of, there is either non-comprehension or miscomprehension in the case of one who has not been purged of his sin, as for instance, in the cases of Indra and Virocana (Ch. VIII. vii-xii). Therefore knowledge, as imparted by the Vedas, dawns on one whose mind has been purified by concentration etc., either in this life or in many past ones, as is mentioned by the Vedic verse: 'These things get revealed when spoken to that high-sould man who has supreme devotion towards the Effulgent One, and the same devotion to his teacher as to the Effulgent One' (Sv. VI. 23). And this is borne out by the Smrti, 'Knowledge dawns on a man on the eradication of sinful acts.' (Mbh. Sa. 204.8). The word iti is used to draw attention to a synecdoche; tha is to say, by the word iti are suggested other factors, beginning with these, which are helpful to the rise of knowledge, such as 'Humility, unpretentiousness,' etc. (G. xiii. 7). (Concentration etc. are the) pratistha, two legs, stands as it were, of this (Upanisad); for when these exist, knowledge of Brahman stands firm and becomes active, just as a man does with his legs. Vedah, the four Vedas; and sarvangani, all the six subsidiaries beginning with the science of pronunciation and euphony (siksa) (are also the legs).
The Vedas are the legs because they reveal the rites and knowledge; and all the angani, subsidiaries, are so because they are meant for the protection of the Vedas. Or since the word pratistha has been imagined to imply the two legs (of the knowledge), the Vedas are its sarvangani, all the other limbs beginning with the head. In this case, the subsidiaries, such as the sicience of pronunciation and euphony, are to be understood to have been mentioned by the word Vedas; because when the principal factor is mentioned, the subsidiaries are mentioned ipso facto, they being dependent on the principal. Satyam ayatanam, satya is the ayatana, the dwelling place where the secret teaching resides. Satya means freedom from deceit and crookedness in speech, mind, and body; for knowledge abides in those who are free from deciet and who are holy, and not in those who are devilish by nature and are deceitful, as the Vedic text says, 'those in whom there are no crooknedness falsehood and deceit' (Pr. I. 16). Therefore satya (truth) is imagined as the abode. Although by implication, truth has already been mentioned as legs, along with concentration etc., still its allusion again as the abode is for indicating that, as a means (for the acquisition of knowledge) it excels others, as the Smrti says, 'A thousand horse-sacrifices and truth are weighed in a balance: and one truth outweighs a thousand horse sacrifices' (V. Sm. 8).

4.9 Yah vai, anyone who; veda evam, realizes thus- as spoken; etam, this thing, this blessed knowledge of Brahman which has been already spoken of in the text beginning with 'Willed by whom' (I. 1), which has been eulogized in the text beginning with, 'It was Brahman indeed' (III. 1), and which is 'the basis of all knowledge' (Mu. I. i. 1)-. Notwithstanding the presentation of the fruit of the knowledge of Brahman in 'Because thereby one gets immortality' (II. 4), it is mentioned at the end by way of a formal conclusion:-(Such a knower) apahatya papmanam, dispelling sin, shaking off the send of mundane existence constituted by ignorance, desire, and work; pratitisthati, remains firmly seated; anante, in the boundless; svarge loke: Svarge loke means in Brahman who is all Bliss. Being qualified by the word ananta, boundless, the word svarga does not mean heaven. Lest the word boundless (ananta), be taken in any secondary sense, the text says jyeye, in the higher, that which is greater than all, in one's own Self which is boundless in the primary sense. The purport is that he does not again return to this world.