Author Topic: CHAPTER 1 - SECTION 9  (Read 196 times)


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« on: April 09, 2019, 09:21:50 PM »
From the statement that knowledge alone leads to the attainment of sovereignty (I. vi), it may follow that the duties enjoined by Vedas and Smrtis are useless. In order to avoid such a contingency, the duties are being presented here, so that they may be shown as contributory to the attainment of human goals.

1.9.1 The word rtam has been explained. Svadhyayah is study (of the scriptures). Pravacanam is teaching (of the scriptures), or self-recital of the Vedas (called brahmayajna). These, viz rta etc., are to be practised-this much is understood at the end of the sentence. And satyam means truthfulness in speech, or what has been explained earlier; tapah is austerity etc.; damah is the control of the outer organs; samah is the control of the inner organs. Agnayah, the fires-are to be kept up. And agnihotram, the Agnihotra sacrifice-is to be performed. And atithayah, the guests-are to be adored. Manusam means social good conduct; that too should be practised as the occasion demands. And praja, progeny-is to be begotten. Prajanah ca, and procreation in due time. Prajatih is the raising of a grandson; in other words, the son is to be married. Learning and teaching are mentioned in all the contexts in order to imply that these two are to be carefully practised even by one who is engaged in all these duties; for the comprehension of meaning is dependent on study, and the supreme goal (emanicipation) is dependent on the understanding of the meaning. And teaching is for the preservation of that memory and for the increase of virtue. Therefore one has to entertain a love for learning and teaching. Satyam, truth alone-is to be practised; iti, this is what; satyavacah, one whose speech consists of truth, or one whose name is Satyavaca; rathitarah, the teacher Rathitara, born in the line of Rathitara, thinks. Tapah, austerities alone-are to be undertaken; iti; this is what; taponityah, one who is ever (nitya) steeped in austerity (tapah), or whose name is Taponitya; the teacher paurusistih, who is the son of Purusisti, thinks. Svadhyaya-pravacane eva, learning and teaching alone-are to be practised; iti, this is what; the teacher nakah, Naka by name; and Maudgalyah, the son of Mudgala, thinks. Hi, since; tat, that-learning and teaching; verily constitute tapah, austerity; therefore they alone are to be followed-this is the idea. Although truth, austerity, learning, and teaching were mentioned earlier, they are dealt with over again in order to show solicitude for them.