Author Topic: CHAPTER 2 - SECTION 3  (Read 214 times)

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CHAPTER 2 - SECTION 3
« on: April 09, 2019, 10:21:24 PM »
2.3.1 Devah, the gods-Fire etc.; prananti, perform the act of breathing-become active through the functioning of the vital force; anu pranam, after the self that is constituted by air; that is to say, the gods perform the vital functions by becoming identified with that which possesses the power of sustaning life. Or, because this is the context of the physical body, devah means the sense-organs; (they) pranam anu prananti, become active by following the function of breathing that subsists in the mouth. Similarly, ye manusyah pasavah ca, those that are human beings and animals, they become active through the function of breathing. Hence, also, it is not simply by possessing the limited self in the form of the body built up by food that creatures become dowered with selves.

What then? Human beings and others are endowed with their selves by virtue of possessing a vital body within each physical body, which former is common to, and pervades, each physical body as a whole. Similarly, all creatures are possessed of their selves by virtue of being provided wih the bodies beginning with the mental and ending with the blissful, which successively pervade the preceding ones and which are made up of the elements counting from akasa that are the creations of ignorance. So also are they blessed with their selves by the Self that is common to all, self-existent, the source of space etc., everlasting, unchanging, all-pervading, defined as 'truth, knowledge, and infinite', and beyond the five sheaths. And by implication it is also said that this is the Self of all in the real sense. It has been said that the senses act by following the activity of the vital force. How is that so? This is being answered: Hi, since, according to another Vedic text, 'Life lasts so long as the vital force resides in the body' (Kau. III. 2); pranah, the vital force; is ayuh, the life; bhutanam, of creatures; therefore, it (the vital force) is ucyata, called; sarvayusam. Sarvayuh, means the life of all; sarvayuh is the same as sarvayusam, the life of all. Since death is a known consequence of the departure of the vital force, the latter is universally recognized as the life of all. Hence those who, after detaching themselves from this external, personal, physical self, meditate on the inner, common vital self as Brahman with the idea, 'I am the vital force that is the self of all beings and their life-being the source of life', get verily the full span of life in this world, i.e. they do not meet with any accidental death before the ordained span of life. The word sarvayuh, (full span of life), should, however, properly mean one hundred years, in accordance with the well-recognized fact in the Vedic text, 'He gets a full span of life' (Ch. II. xi-xx, IV. xi-xiii). What is the reason (of attaining the full life)? Pranah hi bhutanam ayuh tasmat sarvayusam ucyate (see ante). The repetition of the expression pranah, hi etc., is to indicate the ligic of the attainment of the fruit of meditation, to wit: Anyone who worships Brahman as possessed of certain qualities, himself shares in them. Tasya purvasya, of the physical body described above; esah eva, this verily is; the sarirah atma, the self existing in the body made of food. Which is it? Yah esah that which is this one-constituted by the vital force. The rest beginning with tasmat vai etasmat is to be construed as before. Anyah antarah atma, there is another inner self; manomayah, constituted by mind. Manah means the internal organ comprising volition etc. That which is constituted by mind is manomaya, just as in the case of annamaya. This that is such is the inner self of the vital body. Tasya, of that (mental body); yajuh eva sirah, the Yajurmantras are the head. Yajuh means a kind of mantra in which the number of letters and feet, and length (of lines) are not restricted; the word yajuh denotes (prose) sentences of that class. It is the head because of its preeminence, and the pre-eminence is owing to its subserving a sacrifice directly, for an oblation is offered with a Yajur-mantra uttered along with a svaha etc. Or the imagination of the head etc., everywhere, is only on the authority of the text. (Yajuh is a constituent of the mental sheath) since yajuh is that state of the mind which is related to organs (of utterance), effort (involved in utterance), sound (produced thereby), intonation, letters, words, and sentences; which consists of a volition with regard to these factors; which is pre-occupied wiht their thoughts; which has the organs of hearing etc. for its communication; and which has the characteristics of the Yajur-mantras. Thus are (to be understood) the Rg-mantras, and thus also the Samamantras. In this way, when the mantras are considered as mental states, their mental repetition (japa) becomes possible, since that implies that those states alone are continued in the mind. Else, mental repetition of a mantra would not be possible, since the mantra would then be outside the mind just as much as pot etc;, are. [The words in the mantra would be outside the mind, and as the mind would have no independence with regard to them, there would be no mental repetition of them.] But, as a matter of fact, the repetition of mantras has to be undertaken (since it) is enjoined variously in connection with rites.

Objection: The (mental) repetition of a mantra can be accomplished by the repetition of the memory of letters (constituting it).
Answer: No, since (on that assumption) there is no possibility of repetition in the primary sense. The repetition of Rg-mantra is enjoined in the text, 'The first Rg-mantra is to be repeated thrice and the last Rg-mantra is to be repeated thrice.' That being so, if the Rg-mantras themselves be not made the objects of repetition, and if the repetition of their memory be undertaken, the repetition of the Rg-mantra, in the primary sense, which is enjoined in 'the first Rg-mantra is to be repeated thrice', will be discarded. Hence the (Yajur)mantras are (in the last analysis) nothing but the knowledge of the Self, which is identical with the beginningless and eldless Consciousness that is the Self lodged in and conditioned by the mental functions referred to as Yajus that act as Its limiting adjuncts. Thus is the eternality of the Vedas justifiable. Else, If they are objects like colour etc., they will be impermanent. This is not correct. And the Vedic text, 'where all the Veda get united is the Self in the mind, [Where the Self exists as the witness of all mental functions] (Cit. XI.1, Tai.A. III.ii.1), which declares the identity of the Rgmantras etc., with the eternal Self, can be reconciled only if the mantras are eternal. And there is also the mantra text, 'The Rg-mantras exist in that undecaying and supreme space (Brahman) where all the gods reside' (Sv. IV. 8). Adesah here (means the brahmana portion of the Vedas, since (in consonance with the etymological meaning of adesa, command) the brahmana, portion inculcates all that has to be enjoined. Atharvangirasah, the mantra and the brahmana portions seen by Atharvangirasah; the mantra and the brahmana portions seen by Atharvangiras; are puccham pratistha, the stabililizing tail, since they are chiefly concerned with rites performed for acquiring peace, prosperity, etc., which bring about stability. Pertaining to this is a verse, just as before, which reveals the self that is constituted by the mind.