Author Topic: CHAPTER 3 - SECTION 1  (Read 222 times)


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« on: April 09, 2019, 11:23:46 PM »
Since Brahman, that is truth, knowledge, and infinity, brought about this creation - starting with space and ending with the body made of food-, then It entered into it, and seems to be possessed of distinctions because of this fact of entry, therefore one should realize thus: 'I am that very Brahman which is the Bliss that is distinct from all creation and is possessed of such characteristics as invisibility.' For the (subject of) entry (of Brahman) is meant to imply this. In the case of one who knows thus, good and bad deeds do not bring about rebirth. This was the idea intended to be conveyed in the Part On Bliss (Ananda-valli). The knoweldge of Brahman, too, has been concluded. After this is to be taught concentration which is hlepful to the knowledge of Brahman, as also such meditations with regard to food etc. which have not been dealt with so far. Therefore this Part begins. The story is meant to eulogize knowledge by showing that it was imparted [As a valuable heritage out of affection.] to a dear son by a father.

3.1.1 The particle vai, alluding to a recognised fact, calls up to memory one who is well known by the name Bhrgu. Varunih is the son of Varuna. Varuna's son, becoming anxious to know Brahman, upasasara, approached; his pitaram varunam, father Varuna; with, iti, this sacred formula (mantra): 'Adhihi bhagavah brahma, teach (me) Brahman, O revered sir.' Adhihi means teach, tell. And tasmai, to him, who had approached in due form; the father, too, provaca, spoke; etat, this-this sentence: 'Annam,' etc. He spoke of annam, food, i.e. the body; of pranam, the vital force, which is within that body and which is the eater. and of the aids to cognition, viz caksuh, srotram, manah, vacam, eye, ear, mind, speech; he spoke of these as the doors to the realization of Brahman. ['These are doors in the sense that they are helpful in distinguishing the object aimed at. For it is from the fact of the impossiblity of the activities of the body etc. continuing in any other way (than) through the consciousness of the Self) that consciousness becomes distinguished from them as a separate entity.' A.G.] And having spoken of food etc. as doors, he uvaca, told; the definition of Brahman, tam, to him, Bhrgu. What is that (definition)? Yatah vai, that from which, indeed; imani bhutani, all these beings-starting with Brahma and ending with a clump of grass; jayante, take birth; jatani, being born; yena jivanti, that by which they live, grow; yat, that Brahman towards which; prayanti,they proceed; into which they abhisamvisanti, enter, become fully identified, at the time of their dissolution-that with which the beings do not lose their identity during the times of creation, existence, and dissolution. This, then, is the definition of Brahman. Vijijnasasva, crave to know well; tat, that; brahma, Brahman. Realize, through the help of food etc., that Brahman which is defined thus-this is the idea. Another Vedic text, too, shows that these are doors to the realization of Brahman: 'Those who have known the Vital Force of the vital force, the Eye of the eye, the Ear of the ear, the Food of the food, and the Mind of the mind, have realized the ancient, primordial Brahman' (Br. IV. iv. 18). Having heard from his father the doors to the realization of Brahman, as also the definition of Brahman, sah he, Bhrgu; atapyata, practised; tapah, (lit. austerity), concentration-as a means to the realization of Brahman.

Objection: How could Bhrgu, again, accept tapah (concentration) as a means, since it was not taught to be so?
Answer: (He accepted this) because of the incompleteness of the instruction. Varuna said that food etc. are the doors to the realization of Brahman, and that Its definition is, 'That from which all these beings take birth,' etc. That, indeed, is incomplete; for Brahman was not directly pointed out there. Otherwise, Brahman, in Its true nature, should have been indicated by saying, 'This Brahman is of this kind', to the son who was desirous of knowing. Not that he indicated thus. How did he do then? He said in an incomplete manner. So it is to be understood that for the knowledge of Brahman the father certainly had some other discipline in view. As for singling out tapah (concentration), this is because it is the best discipline, for it is well kown in the world that of all the means that are causally related with definite ends, concentration is the best. [Form the father's description of Brahman, Bhrgu could not arrive at any non-composite, unitary conception of Brahman which ruled out all duality and which could not be analysed back into its component parts; for the description itself was soaked in plurality. Bhrgu aimed at an irresolvable concept, and hence he went on revolving in his mind what he had heard. That was his tapah.] so Bhrgu accepted tapah as a means to the knowledge edge of Brahman though it was not taught by his father. This tapah consists in the concentration of the outer and inner organs, for that forms the door to the knowledge of Brahman in accordance with the Smrti, 'The concentration of the mind and the senses is the highest tapah. Since it is higher than all the virtues, it is called the highest virtue' (Mbh. Sa. 250.4). And sah, he; tapah taptva, having practised concentraton.