Author Topic: CHAPTER 3 - SECTION 10  (Read 251 times)


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« on: April 09, 2019, 11:36:16 PM »
3.10.1-2 So also there is a vow for one who meditates on earth and space (as mutually the food and the eater): na pratyacaksita, he should not refuse; kam cana, anybody, whomsoever; vasatau, in the matter of dwelling. The meaning is that he should not turn back anybody who may come for shelter.

Since, if shelter is given, food, too, must be supplied, therefore yaya kaya ca vidhaya, by any means whatsoever; prapnuyat bahu annam, he should get, i.e. collect, plenty of food. Since the enlightened people (i.e. meditators) possessed of food, acaksate, say; 'Annam aradhi asmai, food has been cooked for this man', and they do not refuse him by saying, 'There is no food', therefore, also, one should acquire plenty of food. This is how this portion should be construed with the earlier. Moreover, the greatness of the gift of food is being stated: Food greets one back in that very manner and at that very period (of life) in which it is offered. How? that is being explained: Etat vai, the fact that; annam, food; raddham, cooked; mukhatah, in early age, or with the best attitude, with veneration-; 'he offers to the guest seeking food', this much is to be added to complete the sentence. What result will he get? The answer is: Asmi for this one-for the giver of food; annam radhyate, food is cooked; mukhatah, in the early age, or in the best manner. The idea is that food falls to his share just as it was offered. Similarly, madhyatah means during the middle part of life, and with middling courtesy. Thus, too, antatah means in the old age, and with scant courtesy, i.e. with discourtesy. In that very manner annam radhyate asmai, food is cooked for him, food accrues to him. Yah evam veda, he who knows-thus-knows the greatness of food and the result of that gift as stated-, to him befalls the aforesaid result (of that gift). Now is being stated a process of meditation on Brahman: Ksemah means the preservation of what has been acquired; Brahman is to be meditated on as existing vaci, in speech, in the form of preservation. Yogah means the acquisition of what is not is possession. Though these acquisition and preservation occur so long as exhaling and inhaling function, still they are not braught about by the mere fact of living. What are they, then, due to? They are caused by Brahman. Therefore Brahman is to be meditated on an existing pranapanayoh, in exhalation and inhalation, in the form of acquisition and preservation. Similarly, with regard to the other succeeding cases Brahman is to be meditated on as identified with those (respective) things. Since work is done by Brahman, Brahman is to be meditated on as existing hastayoh, in the hands; karma iti, in the form of work; gatih iti, as movement; padayoh, in the feet: vimuktih iti, as discharge; payau, in the anus; Iti, these are: samajnah, cognitions, perceptions, i.e. meditations; which are manusih (should be rather manusyah), pertaining to men, belonging to the physical body. Atha, after this; daivih, (should be rather daivyah), the divine, the meditations pertaining to the gods-are being related. Trptih iti vrstau, as satisfaction in rain. Since rain causes contentment by producing food etc., Brahman is to be meditated on as existing in rain in the form of contentment. Similarly, in the case of other things, Brahman is to be meditated on an existing in those forms. So also It is to be meditated on as energy is lightning.

3.10.3-4 (Brahman is to be worshipped) as yasah, fame; pasusu, among animals; [I.e. as existing in cattle-wealth, since wealth makes a man famous.] as jyotih, light, naksatresu, in the stars. Prajatih, procreation; amrtam, immortality, getting of immortality-this being brought about by the son's repaying the debts; anandah, happiness-all these originate from the organ of generation, and Brahman is to be meditated on as existing in those froms in the generative organ. Since sarvam, everything; is placed akase, in space (or the Unmanifested), therefore one should meditate thus: 'All that is in space is Brahman.' And that space, too, is Brahman. Therefore that (space-Brahman) is to be meditated on as the support of all. By meditating on the attribute of 'being the sustainer', one becomes well established. So also with regard to the previous cases, it is to be understood that any effect that is produced by any of the factors, [E.g. preservation, produced by speech, is Brahman] is but Brahman only; and by meditating on that (effect as Brahman) one becomes possessed of it. This also follows from another Vedic text, 'As he worships Him, so he becomes' (Mud. III.3). Upasita, one should worship; tat, that (Brahman), mahah iti, as possessed of greatness; (thereby) bhavati mahan, one becomes great. (Brahman should be meditated on as) manah, thinking; (thereby) bhavati manavan, he becomes able to think. Tat namah, etc.: namah means bowing down, (possessed of suppleness); Brahman is to be worshipped as possessed of suppleness; (thereby) kamah, desires, things that are desired, i.e. enjoyable things; namyante, bow down; asmai, to such a meditator. One should meditate on tat, that Brahman; brahman iti, as the most exalted; (thereby) one bhavati, brahmavan, becomes possessed of that quality of being the most exalted. [Like Virat, possessed of all gross means of enjoyment.] Tat brahmanah etc.: parimarah is derived in the sense of that in which die, from all sides, the five gods, viz Lightning, Rain, Moon, Sun, and Fire. Therefore air is their parimarah, destruction-in accordance with another Vedic text, ('Air [Virat] is, indeed, the place of merger'), (Ch. IV. iii. 1). Again, this very air is non different from space; hence space is brahmanah parimarah, Brahman's medium of destruction. Upasita, one should meditate on; tat, that space, which is non different from air, [Since air comes out of space] as Brahman's medium of destruction. (As a result) sapatnah, adversaries; who are dvisatah, envious; enam, towards this man; pari mriyante, part with their lives. There may be adversaries who are not envious; hence the singling out in this form, 'the envious adversaries'. Those adversaries that are envious towards this man (die). Moreover, ye bhratrvyah, those adversaries of this man; who are apriyah, disliked (by him), though they may not be spiteful-they, too, die. Beginning with the text, 'the vital, force is, indeed, food, and the body is the eater of food', and ending with space, creation has been shown as food and the eater of food.

Objection: It might have been said so; what of that?
Answer: Thereby is proved this: Wordly existence, comprising enjoyment and enjoyership, pertain only to created things, but not to the Self; yet it is superimposed on the Self through ignorance.
Objection: The Self, too, is a product of the supreme Self, and hence the Self's worldly existence is quite in order.
Answer: No, for the Upanisad refers to the entry of the Transcendental (Brahman). In the text, 'Having created that, He entered into that very thing' (, the entry into creation is predicated verily of the transcendental supreme Self which is, indeed, the cause of space etc. Hence the Self which has entered into creation as the individual soul is none other than the supermundane, supreme Self. Moreover, this follows from the propriety of the same entity being the subject of the two verbs in the expression, 'having created, he entered'. If the two verbs implying creation and entry have the same subject, then only is the suffix ktva (-ing) justifiable.
Objection: But the one which enters undergoes a change.
Answer: No, since entry has been explained away by-giving it a different meaning (
Objection: May not the entry be through a change of attributes, since there is such a categorical text, 'entering in the form of this individual soul....(Ch. VI.iii.2)?
Answer: No, since reinstatement into the earlier mode is spoken of in 'Thou art That' (Ch. VI. viii-xvi).
Objection: It is a meditation, involving the superimposition of the greater on the less, which is calculated to remove a chage that has come over one (of the two).
Answer: No, for the two are placed on the same pedestal in the text, 'That is truth, That is the Self; and thou art That'.
Objection: The worldly state of the individual soul is a perceived reality.
Answer: No, for the perceiver cannot be perceived (Br. II.iv.14).
Objection: The (individual) Self, as endowed with worldly attributes, is perceived.
Answer: Not so; (for if they are real attributes of the Self, then), since the attributes of a thing are nonseparable from the substratum, they cannot reasonably become objects of perception, just as heat and light (of fire) cannot be subjected to burning or illumination (by fire).
Objection: The soul is inferred to be possessed of sorrow etc., since fear etc. are seen (in it).
Answer: No, for fear etc. and sorrow cannot be the qualities of the perceiver (soul), since they are perceived (by it).
Objection: This runs counter to the (Samkhya) scripture promulgated by Kapila, and to the science of logic built up by Kanada and others.
Answer: No so; for if they have no (logical) basis or if they are opposed to the Vedas, it is reasonable to call them erroneous. And from the Vedas as well as from reasoning, the Self is proved to be transcendental. Besides, this follows from the unity of the Self.
Objection: How is that unity?
Answer: That is being stated (in sah yah ca ayam etc.). The whole of the text, sah yah ca ayam etc., is to be construed as already explained (II.viii.5).

3.10.5-6 Starting from the self constituted by food, and by degrees anandamayam atmanam upasamkramya, reaching the self, constituted by joy; [II.viii.5 refers to liberation after death, whereas this portion of the present text refers to liberation even while living (jivanmukti).] aste, he sits (continues); gayan, singing on; etat sama, this sama (song). The meaning of the Rg-mantra-'Satyam jnanam etc.-Brahman is truth, knowledge,' etc. (II.i)-has been explained elaborately in the Part On Bliss, which is an exposition of it. But the meaning of the statement of its result contained in the text, 'He enjoys, as idetified with the all-knowing Brahman, all desirable things simultaneously' (II.i.), has not been elaborated. Now the following text begins, since it remains to be shown what these results are, what the objects of all those desires are, and how he enjoys them simultaneously in his identity with Brahman. As to that, in the story of the father and the son (in Part III), which is supplementary to the knowledge imparted earlier (in Part II), concentration has been spoken of as a means for the knowledge of Brahman. Besides, it has been shown how creation, counting from the vital force and ending with space, can be divided into the eater and the eaten; and the meditations on Brahman have been referred to.

Furthermore, all the enjoyments that there are and pertain to diverse products like space etc., have been shown to be the results of multifarious means that are systematically related to their results. On the attainment of unity, however, there cannot logically remain any desire or desirer, since all diversity becomes merged in the Self. So how can such a knower enjoy all desires simultaneously in the state of identity with Brahman? In answer to this question it is being said that this is possible because of his becoming the Self of all.

To the question, 'How is there an attainment of identity with the Self of all?'-the answer is: As a result of the knowledge of the identity of the Self existing in the individual and the sun, having discarded excellence and non-excellence, having attained in succession the selves-starting with the one made of food and ending with the one constituted by bliss- which are fancied through ignorance, and having realized, as a result, Brahman which is truth, knowledge, and infinity, which is unperceivable etc. by nature, which is natural Bliss, and which is birthless, immortal, fearless, and non-dual; and then (that man of knowledge) anusamcaran, wandering; on iman lokan, these worlds-the earth etc.; this is how the expression iman lokan is to be construed with the remote word anusamcaran.

Wandering how? (Becoming) kamanni- one who gets anna, food, according to kama, wish, is kamanni, (having command over food at will); similarly, (becoming kamarupi) one who gets rupas, forms according to his wish is kamarupi; wandering on all these worlds, in his identity with all; i.e. perceiving all these worlds as the Self. 'What does he do? Etat sama gayan aste: aste, he continues; gayan, singing, uttering; etat sama, this sama (song). Brahman Itself is the sama, because It is sama, equal, non-different from everything. (So the idea is): He continues declaring the unity of the Self as also announcing, for the good of others, the result of that knowledge consisting in absolute contentment. How does he sing? (He sings): Ha-a-a-vu, ha-a-a-vu, ha-a-a-vu; the expression is used in the sense of 'oho' to indicate supreme surprise. What, again, is that surprise? The answer is: Although I am really the untainted, nondual Self, still I am annam, food; as also annadah, the eater of food. Moreover, aham, I myself; am the slokakrt: sloka means union-union of food and the eater of food; the conscious being encompassing that union is the slokakrt. Or the expression may mean this: I bring about the assemblage of food itself, which is naturally meant for somebody other than itself, viz the eater, and which becomes diversified owing to this very fact. The three repetitions are meant for expressing astonishment. Aham asmi, I am; prathamajah (i.e. prathamajah), the first born (Hiranyagarbha); rtasya, of this world, consisting of the formed and the formless; and (I am Virat which is) purvam, earlier; devebhyah, than the gods. (I am) nabhih (nabhayi) the navel, centre; amrtasya, of immortality, i.e. the immortality of living beings is in my keeping. Yah, anyone who; dadati ma, offers me as food, to those who beg food-talks of me as the food; sah, he; iti, in this way; avah, i.e. avati, protects (me); evam, intact and just as I am. On the contrary, aham, I; who am but annam, the food, for the present; admi, eat up; adantam annam, that eater of food-any other man, who eats food without offering me in the form of food-at the proper time-to those who ask.

At this point someone may say: 'If this be so, I am afraid of liberation that consists in becoming the Self of all. Let my worldly existence itself continue; for even though liberated, I shall still be food to be eaten by somebody.'
(The answer is:) Do not entertain such a fear, for the enjoyment of all the desirable things falls within the range of relative existence. But this man of knowledge has become Brahman by transcending, through illumination, all that is described as the eater and the eaten which fall within the domain of empirical experience and which are the creations of ignorance. For him there exists no separate thing of which he can be afraid. Hence there is nothing to be afraid of in liberation.

Objection: If this be so, then what is meant by saying, 'i am the eaten and the eater'?
Answer: This phenomenal existence, constituted by the eater and the eaten, which endures as a product , is nothing but a phenomenon; it is not a real substance. But though it is so, still, having in view the fact that it exists because of Brahman and that it is reduced to a nonentity apart from Brahman, this phenomenon is referred to in the text, 'I am food,' etc., for the sake of recommending the state of identity with Brahman which follows from the knowledge of Brahman. Therefore, when ignorance is eradicated, there cannot exist for the man indentified with Brahman any remnant of such taints as fear which are the creations of ignorance. Accordingly, aham, I; abhyabhavam, overwhelm, engulf in my supreme nature as God; visvam, the whole; bhuvanam, universe-derivatively meaning that which is enjoyed by all beings counting from Brahma, or that on which all creatures are born. Suvah na joytih: Suvah is the sun; na expresses similitude. The meaning is: Our jyotih, effulgence; is ever-shining suvah na like the sun. Iti upanisad, this is the knowledge of the supreme Self, inculcated in the two Parts (II and III). To him come the aforesaid fruits who, like Bhrgu, masters the above mentioned Upanisad through pratice of great concentration after the acquisition of control over the inner and outer organs, dispassionateness, imperturbability, and concentration.
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