Author Topic: CHAPTER 5 - Samnyasa Yoga  (Read 534 times)


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CHAPTER 5 - Samnyasa Yoga
« on: April 09, 2019, 11:57:06 PM »
Which is better for the ignorant, Karma-Yoga or Samnyasa?
In iv. 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 32, 33, 37 and 41, the Lord bas spoken of the renunciation of all actions; and in iv. 42 He has exhorted Arjuna to engage in Yoga, in performance of action. Owing to the mutual opposition between performance of action and renunciation thereof as between motion and rest, the two cannot be accomplished by an individual at one and the same time. Neither have two distinct periods of time been prescribed for their respective observance.
By inferences therefore, on1y one of them forms Arjuna's duty; so that thinking that, of the two, - performance of action and renunciation thereof, he should resort to the better of the two to the exclusion of the other, Arjuna asks (v. 1) of the Lord with a desire to know which is the better of the two.

Objection: - As going to speak of entire devotion to Jnanayoga on the part of him who bas realized the Self, the Lord has taught, in the passages quoted above, that such a man has to renounce action, but not he who has not realized the Self. Since performance of action and renunciation of action thus pertain to two distinct classes of people respectively, Arjuna's question with a view to know which of the two is better than the other is irrelevant.
Answer: Yes; from your standpoint the question is irrelevant. But from the questioner's (Arjuna's) own stand point, the question, we say, is quite relevant - How?
In the passages quoted above, the Lord enjoins renunciation as a duty (in the form "Let the wise man renounce"); and it cannot be enjoined as a duty unless it (the term 'renounce') is more important than the agent (i.e., the term 'wise'); so that this injunction of renunciation should be extended so as to apply to that man also who has not realized the Self, because renunciation is elsewhere enjoined on him also. It cannot be made out that renunciation of action is here intended for that man only who has realized the Self. Thus arguing, Arjuna thinks that an ignorant man may either perform action or renounce it.
But, owing to the mutual opposition of the two courses as shown above, only one of them can form the duty (of an individual at a time). And inasmuch as it is the better one of the two that should be followed, but not the other, the question with a view to know which of the two is the better is not irrelevant.
The question is not with reference to the enlightened

That this is the meaning of Arjuna's question is also evident from an examination of the meaning of the words in reply. How?
The reply runs as follows: “Samnyasa and Karma-Yoga both lead to the highest bliss; but Karma-Yoga is the better of the two” (v. 2).
We should now ascertain: Is it in reference to the Karma-Yoga and the Karma - Samnyasa resorted to by a man who has realized the Self that it is said that they lead to the highest bliss as their result and that the Karma-Yoga is for some reason the better of the two? Or is it in reference to those resorted to by a man who. has not realized the Self that the statement is made? - What then? - Listen: As a man who has realized the Self resorts to neither Karma Yoga nor Samnyasa, it is not right to speak of them as alike leading to the highest bliss or of the superiority of his Karma-Yoga over his Karma-Samnyasa.
If for a man who has realized the Self, Karmasamnyasa and it's opposite – Karma-Yoga (performance of action) - were possible, then it would have been right to speak of them as alike leading to the highest bliss or to speak of the superiority of his Karma-Yoga over his Karma-Samnyasa.
Inasmuch as, however, neither Karma-Samnyasa nor Karma. Yoga is possible for a man who has realized the Self, it is not right to speak of them as alike leading to the highest bliss, or to say that Karma-Yoga is better than Karma-Samnyasa.

Karma-Yoga and Samnyasa, inapplicable to the enlightened

Question: Are both Karma-Yoga and Karma-Samnyasa impossible, or is only one of them impossible, for a man who has realized the Self? If only one of them, is it Karma. Yoga or Karma-Samnyasa? What is the reason for the impossibility?
Answer: Since the man who has realized the Self is free from illusory knowledge, Karma Yoga which is based upon illusion must be impossible for him. Here, in the Gita sastra, in the sections treating of the real nature of the Self, it is said that a man who knows the Self, who knows himself to be the Self that is devoid of all changes of birth, etc., and is actionless, and whose illusory knowledge has been replaced by right knowledge, that such a man has to renounce all actions, ever dwelling in the true actionless Self; and it is further said that, owing to the opposition between right knowledge and illusory knowledge as well as between their effects, he has nothing to do with Karma-Yoga, the reverse of Karma-Samnyasa, presupposing an active Self and based on the idea of agency caused by illusory knowledge.
Wherefore it is but right to say that, for him who has realized the Self and who is free from illusory knowledge, Karma-Yoga which is based upon the illusory knowledge is impossible.

Question:What then, are the sections treating of the real nature of the Self in which the man who knows the Self
is said to have no action to do?
Answer: In ii. 17, in ii. 19 and ii. 21, and in other places here and there, the man who has realized the Self is said to have no action to do.
Objection: Karma-Yoga is also taught here and there in the sections treating of the real nature of the Self, e.g., in ii. 18, 31, 47, etc.
How, then, can Karma-Yoga be said to be impossible for a man who has realized the Self?
Answer: It is so, because there is an opposition between right knowledge and illusory knowledge as well as between their effects. In iii. 3 it is said that the Sankhyas who have realized the true nature of the Self apply themselves to devotion in the path of wisdom - ever dwelling in the actionless Self - as distinguished from devotion in the path of action which is intended for those who have not realized the Self. The man who has realized the Self has no longer any object to gain, since he has achieved all.
In iii. 17 it is said that he has no more duties to perform. In such passages as iii. 4 and v. 6 Karma-Yoga is enjoined as an accessory to the acquisition of the knowledge of the Self, while in vi. 3 it is said that the man who has obtained right knowledge has no longer anything to do with Karma-Yoga.
Further, in iv. 21 all action is denied to him except that which is required for bodily maintenance; and even with reference to such acts of required for mere bodily maintenance, the man who knows the true nature of the Self is directed in v. 8 always to meditate with a concentrated mind on the idea that ‘it is not I that do it.’ It is not possible to imagine even in a dream that the man who knows the Self can have anything to do with Karma-Yoga, so opposed to right knowledge and entirely based upon illusory knowledge.
Wherefore it is the Samnyasa and the Karma- Yoga of the man who has not realized the Self that are spoken of (in this connection) as leading alike to moksha. This Samnyasa, which consists in ‘renouncing a few actions only while yet there is an idea of agency, - is different from the one already spoken of, from the renunciation of all actions, - which is resorted to by the man who has realized the Self. The former becomes very difficult of performance as it is further associated with ‘yama’ and ‘niyama’ and the like (which are the various forms of self-control). Karma-Yoga is comparatively easier of performance and is therefore spoken of as the better of the two. Thus an examination of the meaning of the words in reply leads also to the same conclusion as has been arrived at before as regards the meaning of Arjuna's question.
At the beginning of the Third Discourse, Arjuna, seeing that knowledge and action could not coexist in one man, asked the Lord " tell me that which is the better of the two;" and in reply the Lord declared decisively that devotion in the path of knowledge was meant for the Sankhyas - the renouncers, the Samnyasins, - and that devotion in the path of action was meant for the Yogis. And from the statement "nor by mere renunciation does he attain perfection," (iii. 4) it is clear that, in the view of the Lord, renunciation with knowledge is a means of attaining perfection. And Karma-Yoga, too, must lead to perfection, inasmuch as it has been enjoined (iv. 42). Arjuna now asks with a view to know as to which one of them. Karma-Yoga or Samnyasa, is better for a man who has no knowledge.

Arjuna said:
1. Renunciation of actions, O Krishna, Thou praisest, and again Yoga. Tell me conclusively that which is the better of the two.
Thou teachest renunciation of those actions which are enjoined in the Sastras, and Thou teachest also that performance of those very actions is necessary. I have, therefore, a doubt as to which of them is better, performance of (prescribed) actions or renunciation of those actions.
It is the better course which must be followed. Wherefore tell me conclusively that one, it being; impossible for one man to resort to both at the same time, - be it performance of actions or renunciation of actions, by which you think I may attain to perfection.

Karma-Yoga suits the ignorant better than Samnyasa
To state His own opinion with a view to clear the doubt, the Lord says:

The Blessed Lord said:
2. Renunciation and Yoga through action both lead to the highest bliss; but, of the two, Yoga through action is esteemed more than renunciation of action.
Samnyasa and Karma-Yoga, renunciation of actions and performance of actions, both lead to moksha, as giving rise to (spiritual) knowledge. Though both lead to moksha, yet, of the two means of attaining moksha, Karma-Yoga is better than mere i.e., unaccompanied with knowledge Karma-samnyasa.
Thus the Lord has praised Karma-Yoga. Wherefore? - The answer follows:

3. He should be known as a perpetual renouncer who neither hates nor desires; for, free from the pairs of opposites, O mighty-armed, he is easily set free from bondage.
The Karma-Yogi who neither hates pain and the objects causing pain, nor desires pleasure and the objects causing pleasure, should be known as a perpetual renouncer (samnyasin), though he is engaged in action.

Sankhya and Yoga lead to the same goal

Objection: Samnyasa and Karma-Yoga, which are meant for two distinct classes of people and are opposed to each other, should properly speaking, be mutually opposed in their results also. They should not, on the other hand, both lead to moksha alike.
Answer: the Lord says:

4. Children, not the wise, speak of Sankhya and Yoga as distinct. He who is rightly devoted to even one obtains the fruits of both.
It is children who speak of Sankhya and Yoga as producing distinct and opposite results. But the wise, men of knowledge, believe that they produce but one harmonious result. He who rightly observes even one of them, Sankhya or Yoga, obtains the fruits of both. Both lead to the same result, viz., moksha. Wherefore, there is no diversity in the result.

Objection: - Having started with the words ‘Samnyasa ‘and 'Karma-Yoga', how is it that He speaks of Sankhya and Yoga - with which we are not at present concerned - as producing the same results?
Answer: There is no fault here. Arjuna indeed asked the Question with reference to simple Samnyasa and simple Karma-Yoga.
But the Lord, without leaving; these, has added to them some additional conceptions of His own and has answered the question, speaking of them under other names, Sankhya and Yoga. In the opinion of the Lord, Samnyasa and Karma-Yoga are themselves termed Sankhya and Yoga when knowledge of the Self (jnana) and equanimity (samabuddhitva) are respectively added to them. Hence no irrelevant topic. How can a man obtain the results of both by the right observance of only one? The answer follows:

5. That state which is reached by Sankhyas is reached by Yogis also. He sees, who sees Sankhya and Yoga as one.
Sankhyas are those who are devoted to knowledge and have renounced the world. They reach the state called moksha. The same state is reached by Yogis also, - but indirectly, through the attainment of true knowledge and renunciation, - by those who perform their duties as a means of attaining knowledge dedicating them to the Isvara, and having no selfish end in view. That man sees rightly who sees that Sankhya and Yoga are one, as leading to an identical result.

Question: If so, Samnyasa must be superior to Yoga. How then is it that it has been declared that Karma-Yoga is better than Karma-samnyasa. Answer: Listen why it is so. It is the simple Karmasamnyasa and the simple Karma-Yoga with reference to which you have asked me" which one is the better of the two?"
In accordance with the question, My answer has been given - without having regard to knowledge - that Karma-Yoga is superior to Karma-Samnyasa. But that Samnyasa which is based upon knowledge is regarded by Me as Sankhya, and Sankhya itself is the true (paramartha) Yoga. It is only by a figure that the Yoga through Vedic rites is called Yoga or Samnyasa, inasmuch as it conduces to that (true Yoga or Samnyasa).

Karma Yoga is a means to Samnyasa
How is it that the aim of the Karma-Yoga is that (true Yoga or Samnyasa)? Listen:

6. But renunciation, O mighty - armed, is hard to attain except by Yoga; a sage equipped with Yoga ere long reaches Brahman.
 Renunciation (Samnyasa) here spoken of is the true (paramarthika) Samnyasa, and Yoga is the Vedic Karma-Yoga (performance of Vedic ritual) dedicated to the Isvara and entirely free from motives. A sage (muni) is so called because of his meditation (manana) on the form of the Isvara.
'Brahman ‘here means renunciation (Samnyasa, which is now being spoken of), because renunciation consists in the knowledge of the Highest Self (Paramatman); and the sruti says: What is called "Nyasa" is Brahman, and Brahman is verily the Great." (Tait. Up. 4 - 78). A sage equipped with Yoga soon reaches Brahman, the true renunciation, which consists in steady devotion to right knowledge. Wherefore, I have said that Karma-Yoga is better.

A sage's actions do not affect him
When the devotee resorts to Yoga, as a means of attaining right knowledge:

7. He who is equipped with Yoga, whose mind is quite pure, by whom the self has been conquered, whose senses have been subdued, whose Self has become the Self of all beings, - though doing, he is not tainted.
He who is equipped with Yoga, whose mind (atman, sattva) has been purified, who has conquered the body (atman, the self) and the senses, who sees rightly, whose Inner Consciousness, the Self, has formed the Self of all beings from Brahma down to a clump of grass, he will not be tainted, i.e., he will not be bound by actions, though he may continue to perform them for the protection of the masses, i.e., with a view to set an example to the masses.

A sage's actions are really no actions.
Neither does he really do anything. Wherefore,

8 - 9. 'I do nothing at all'; thus should the truth-knower think, steadfast, - though seeing, hearing, touching, smelling, eating, going, sleeping, breathing, speaking, letting go, seizing, opening and closing the eyes, - remembering that the senses move among sense-objects.
The truth-knower is he who knows the true nature of the Self, who sees the Supreme Reality. When and how should he think so, ever intent on the truth? - The answer is given thus: ‘though seeing, etc.'
The duty of the man who, thus knowing the truth and thinking rightly, sees only inaction in actions - in all the movements of the body and the senses - consists in renouncing all actions; for, he sees the absence of action. The man, for instance, who thinks of quenching his thirst in a mirage, mistaking it for water, will not, even after knowing that it is no water, resort to the same place for the purpose of quenching his thirst.

Karma - Yogi is untainted by the results of his action
But as to the man who is not a truth-knower and is engaged in action:

10. He who does actions, offering them to Brahman, abandoning attachment, is not tainted by sin, as a lotus leaf by water.
He offers all actions to the Isvara, in the faith that ‘I act for His sake', as a servant acts for the sake of the master. He has no attachment for the result, even for moksha. The result of actions so done is only purity of the mind, and nothing else. Because,

11. By the body, by the mind, by the intellect, by mere senses also, Yogis perform action, without attachment, for the purification of the self.
Mere: free from egotism, resolute in the faith that ‘I act only for the sake of the Lord, not for my benefit.’ ‘Mere’ should be construed along with ‘body’ etc., with each one of them separately. Yogis are those who are devoted to works, free from egotism in all their acts, without attachment for their results. They act only for the purification of the mind, (sattva). Wherefore, as thy duty lies only there, do thou only perform action. Also because,

12. The steady-minded one, abandoning the fruit of action, attains the peace born of devotion. The unsteady one, attached to the fruit through the action of desire, is firmly bound.
The steady-minded man who, resolved that "I do actions for the sake of the Lord, not for my benefit," abandons the fruit of action attains the peace called moksha, as the result of devotion, through the following stages: first, purity of the mind; then, attainment of knowledge; then, renunciation of all actions; and lastly, devotion to knowledge. But he who is unsteady is led by desire and is attached to the fruit, thinking ‘I do this act for my benefit.’ He is firmly bound. Wherefore, be thou steady-minded.

The blissful embodied life of a sage
But as to the man who sees the Supreme Being,

13. Renouncing all actions by thought, and Self-controlled, the embodied one rests happily in the nine-gated city, neither at all acting nor causing to act.
Actions are either the obligatory duties (nitya-karmani), or those arising on the occurrence of some special events (naimittika-karmani), or those intended for securing some special ends, and which are only optional (kamya-karmani), or those which are forbidden (pratishiddhakarmani).
The man who has subdued the senses, renounces all actions in speech, thought, and deed, by discrimination, by seeing inaction in action, and rests happily. He rests happily because he has given up all action in speech, thought and deed, because he is without worry, because his mind is calm, because, excepting the Self, all interests (foreign to the Self) have departed from his mind, - Where and how does he rest?
In the body which has nine openings seven in the head, being the organs of sensation; two nether ones for the passage of the urine and the dung. As having these nine openings, the body is said to be a nine-gated city. It is like a city, with the Self for its Monarch, inhabited by the citizens of the senses, mind, intellect, as well as their objects, - all working for the sole benefit of their Lord and producing consciousness of various objects. In such a nine-gated city the embodied one rests, having renounced all action.
Objection: Of what use is the qualification “he rests in the body?” Every man, be he a samnyasin or not, rests in the body only. So, the qualification is meaningless.
Answer: He that is ignorant identifies himself with the mere aggregate of the body and the senses, and thinks: "I rest in a house, on the ground, on a seat." Such a man, regarding the mere body as himself, cannot indeed cherish the idea that he rests in the body as in a house. But in the case of a man who regards the Self as distinct from the aggregate of the body, etc., the idea that he rests in the body is quite possible.
And it is also right that he should renounce by thought - by knowledge, by discriminative wisdom - the action attributed to the Self through ignorance, but which really pertains to the not-Self. Though a man has attained discriminative wisdom i.e., has realized his true Self as distinguished from the not - Self) and has renounced all concern with action, still, it may be said that he rests in the nine-gated city of the body as in a house, inasmuch as his personal consciousness (of resting) arises only with reference to the body in virtue of the traces of the unspent portion of the prarabdha-karma - the karma which brought the present body into existence - still continuing to be felt. Thus the qualification ‘he rests in the body’ has a meaning, as pointing to a distinction between the respective standpoints of the wise and the ignorant.

Objection: It is true that he renounces the actions of the body and of the senses attributed falsely to the Self through ignorance; still, the power of acting and of causing to act may be inhere it m the Self and may remain in him who has renounced actions.
Answer: The Lord says: He neither acts himself, nor causes the body and the senses to act.
Question: Do you mean that the power of acting and of causing to act is inherent in the Self and that it ceases by renunciation, like the motion of a moving person; or that the power is not inherent in the Self?
Answer: - The power of acting or of causing to act is not inherent in the Self; for, the Lord has taught that the Self is unchangeable (ii. 23), and "though seated in the body, he acts not, nor is he tainted" (xiii, 31). The sruti says, "It thinks as it were and moves as it were." (Bri. Up. 4 - 3 - 7).

Nature is the source of activity

14. Neither agency nor objects does the Lord create for the world, nor union with the fruits of actions. But it is the nature that acts.
The Self, the Lord (of the body), does not create agency i.e., does not of Himself urge anyone to action, ‘do this.’ Neither does the Self create cars, jars, mansions, and other objects of desire. Nor does the Self unite him who makes a car or the like with the fruit of the act.

Question: - If the Self in the body does not Himself act nor cause others to act, what then is it that acts and causes others to act?
Answer: - Listen. It is Nature, Svabhava, Prakriti, Maya, ‘the Divine Maya made up of gunas - '(vii. 14). In reality,

Wisdom and Unwisdom

15. The Lord takes neither the evil nor even the good deed of any; wisdom is enveloped by unwisdom; thereby mortals are deluded.
Of any: even of His devotees. (Question): - With what object then is done by devotees any meritorious act, - an act of worship, sacrifice, or charity, the offering of an oblation into the fire, or the like? (Answer): - The Lord says in reply: Discriminative knowledge is enveloped by ignorance.
Thereby the ignorant mortal creatures in samsara are deluded and think, "I act, I cause to act, I shall enjoy, I cause to enjoy," and so on.

16. But to those whose unwisdom is destroyed by wisdom of the Self, like the sun wisdom illuminates that Supreme.
When that unwisdom by which the mortals are enveloped and deluded is destroyed by wisdom or discriminative knowledge of the Self, then, as the sun illuminates all objects, so wisdom illuminates the whole of the Knowable, the Supreme Reality.

The sage has no more births
The Supreme Reality having been illuminated by wisdom,

17. With their consciousness in That, their Self being That, intent on That, with That for their supreme goal, they go never again to return, their sins shaken off by means of wisdom.
Fixing their consciousness in Brahman and realizing that the very Supreme Brahman is their Self, they renounce all actions and dwell in Brahman alone, the Supreme Brahman being their highest goal, their delight being solely in the unconditioned Self. In the case of such men, all sins and other causes of mundane existence (Samsara) are destroyed by wisdom described above, and they depart from here, never returning to embodied life.

The sage sees the One in all beings
How do those wise men see truth whose ignorance of the Self has been removed by knowledge? Listen:

18. In a Brahmana endued with wisdom and humility, in a cow, in an elephant, as also in a dog and in a dog - eater, the wise see the same.
Humility is tranquility, the condition of a well-disciplined soul. Of the creatures mentioned, the highest is then brahmana who is spiritually regenerated and highly Sattvic (i.e., in whom the energy oi Sattva predominates). Next comes the cow, not spiritually regenerated, and Rajasic (i.e. in which the energy of Rajas predominates). Last come the elephant, etc., which are purely Tamasic (the energy of Tamas predominating). In all of them the sages see the same, the One who is immutable in Himself and quite untouched by Sattva and other energies, or by the tendencies born of those energies, whether Sattvic, Rajasic, or Tamasic.

The sage is liberated while still on earth

Objection: - They (the sages just spoken of) are sinful persons, whose food should not be eaten by others. For, the Law says: "Where one's equals are honored in a different manner, and where persons who are not one's equals are honored in the same manner as oneself, a dinner must not be eaten." (Gautama's Institutes, xvii. 20.)
Answer: They are not sinful; for,

19. Even here birth is overcome by them whose mind rests on equality. Spotless, indeed, and equal is Brahman; wherefore in Brahman they rest.
Even while living here on earth, birth has been brought under control by those sages who see the One, and whose intuition (antah-karana) rests unwavering on the equality (i.e., homogeneity) of Brahman in all creatures. Though to the ignorant, Brahman in such impure bodies as those of dog-eaters and the like appears to be contaminated by their impurities, yet He is unaffected by them and is therefore spotless. Further, He is not heterogeneous either, owing to any heterogeneous attributes inherent in Himself; for, consciousness (chaitanya) has no attributes.
And the Lord speaks of desire and the like as the attributes of the Kshetra - of the body, of the not-Self (xiii 6), - and He speaks also of the Self as beginning-less and without attributes (xiii. 31). Nor are there what are called ‘ultimate particulars (antyaviseshas) as the basis of individual distinctions in the Self, since no evidence can be adduced to prove their existence in relation to the several bodies. Hence Brahman is homogeneous and one.
Wherefore they (the sages) rest in Brahman only. Not in the slightest can blemishes of bodies affect them, since they have no egotism and do not identify themselves with the aggregate of the body and the like. It is only to those who are egotistic and who identify the Self with the aggregate of the body and the like, that the institute quoted above is applicable since it refers to persons who are the objects of honor. In honoring and giving gifts, some special qualifications are taken into account, such as knowledge of Brahman, a knowledge of the six auxiliary sciences (angas), a knowledge of the four Vedas and the like. But Brahman is free from all attributes, good and bad. Hence the statement ‘they rest in Brahman. Moreover, the institute quoted above is taken from a section which is concerned with works (Karma), whereas this portion of the Gita (from v. 13 to the end of the adhyaya) is a section treating of 'renunciation of all works.

The sage is free from grief and rejoicing
Because Brahman, the Self, is blemishless and homogeneous, therefore,

20. He who knows Brahman can neither rejoice on obtaining the pleasant nor grieve on obtaining the unpleasant, - steady-minded, undeluded, resting in Brahman.
Pleasant and unpleasant objects can cause pleasure and pain to them only who regard the body as the Self, not to him who sees the pure Self, since the latter never comes by pleasant and unpleasant objects. He is undoubtingly conscious that the Self free from delusion. He rests in Brahman described above; that is, he does no action, he has renounced all action.

The sage's infinite joy
Moreover, resting in Brahman,

21. With the self unattached to external contacts, he finds the joy which is in the Self; with the Self engaged in the contemplation of Brahman he attains the endless joy.
When his intuition (antah-karana) is uncontaminated by attachment to things contacted by the senses, to the sound and other sense-objects which are all external (to the Self), the sage realizes the joy which there is in the Self. When his intuition (antah-karana) is engaged in Yoga, in Samadhi, in a deep and steady contemplation of Brahman, then the sage attains the imperishable bliss. Therefore, he who seeks for the endless joy of the Self should withdraw the senses from the momentary pleasure of external objects. For the following reason also he should withdraw (the senses from external objects):

22. For, those delights which arc born of contacts are only generators of pain, having a beginning and an end, O son of Kunti; a wise man rejoices not in them.
The pleasures that are caused by contacts of the senses with sense-objects are only generators of pain, since those delights are caused by nescience (avidya). We do find that all troubles arising in the body (adhyatmika), etc., are traceable to them (delights) only. As in this world, so in the other, as the word ‘only’ indicates. Seeing that there is no trace of joy in the samsara, the devotee should withdraw the senses from the mirage of sense-objects.
Not only do the delights cause pain, but also they have a beginning and an end. The contact of a sense with its object marks the beginning of pleasure, and their separation its end. Delights are temporary, occurring in the moment of interval (between the origin and the end). A man who possesses discrimination and who has realized the Supreme Reality does not rejoice in them. It is only quite ignorant persons that are, like cattle and the like, found to rejoice in the sense-objects.

The path of Nirvana
And there is also a wicked thing, an enemy on the path to Bliss, a most difficult thing to deal with, the source of all evil, very difficult to ward off, so that, very mighty efforts should be made, says the Lord, to repel the enemy:

23. He that is able, while still here, to withstand, before liberation from the body, the impulse of desire and anger, he is a Yogi, he is a happy man.
While still here: while yet living. Before liberation from the body: up to the point of death. By thus marking death as the limit, the Lord teaches that the impulse of desire and anger is unavoidable during life since its causes are innumerable and that till the very moment of death it should not be trusted.
Desire (Kama) is the longing for a pleasure-giving agreeable object of our experience when coming within the ken of our senses, heard of, or remembered; and anger (krodha) is the aversion for the disagreeable, for the cause of pain, when being seen, heard of, or remembered. The impulse of desire (kama) is the agitation of the mind (antah-karana) as indicated by hairs standing on end and by a joyful countenance; and the impulse of anger is the mental agitation indicated by the trembling of the body, by perspiration, lip - biting, fiery eyes, and the like. He who can withstand the impulses of desire and anger is a Yogi, and he is a happy man here on earth. What sort of a man resting in Brahman attains Brahman? Lord says:

24. Whoso has his joy within and his pastime within, and whoso has his light within only, that Yogi attains Brahman's bliss, himself becoming Brahman.
Within: in the Self. He attains the bliss (nirvana) in Brahman, - i.e., he attains moksha, while still living here on earth. Moreover,

25. The sages attain Brahman's bliss, they whose sins have been destroyed and doubts removed, who are self-controlled and intent on the welfare of all beings.
Sages (Rishis): men of right knowledge and renunciation. Intent etc., injuring none. Moreover,

26. To the devotees who are free from desire and anger, who have controlled their thought, and who have known the Self, Brahman's bliss exists everywhere.
Those who have renounced all actions and attained right knowledge are liberated, whether living or dead.

Realization of the Lord by Dhyana-Yoga
It has been said that those who, renouncing all actions, remain steady in right knowledge obtain instant liberation. It has often been and will be declared by the Lord that Karma-Yoga, which is performed in complete devotion to the Lord and dedicated to Him, leads to moksha step by step: first the purification of the mind, then knowledge, then renunciation of all actions, and lastly moksha. And now, with a view to propound at length the Dhyana-Yoga, the proximate means to right knowledge, the Lord teaches the Dhyana-Yoga in the following few aphoristic verses:

27 - 28. Shutting out all external contacts and fixing the sight between the eyebrows, equalizing the outgoing and the ingoing breaths which pass through the nostrils, controlling the senses, mind and intellect, having moksha as his highest goal, free from desire, fear and anger, - the sage whoever (remains thus) is verily liberated.
The sound and other sense-objects enter the mind within through the respective organs. These objects which are external are kept outside when a man does not think of them. A sage (muni) is one who is given to contemplation (manana) and who renounces all actions. Keeping the body in the posture described, he should always look up to moksha as his supreme goal. When the sage leads constantly this kind of life, renouncing all, he is no doubt liberated: he has nothing else to do for liberation. What has he - he whose mind is thus steadily balanced to know and meditate upon in the Dhyana-Yoga?

29. On knowing Me, - the Lord of all sacrifices and austerities, the Great Lord of all worlds, the Friend of all beings, he goes to Peace.
I am Narayana, the Lord of all sacrifices and austerities, both as their author and as their Devata (i.e., as the God whose grace is sought by their means). I am the Friend of all, doing good to them without expecting any return for it. Lying in the heart of all beings, I am the dispenser of the fruits of all actions and the witness of all cognitions. On knowing Me, they attain peace, the cessation of all samsara.

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