Author Topic: CHAPTER 6 - SECTION 1  (Read 334 times)


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« on: April 07, 2019, 10:44:12 AM »
The relation of the chapter that starts now is being stated in the words, 'There was one named Svetaketu, son of Aruni', etc. It has been said, 'All this is Brahman. It is born from, dissolves in, and exists, in That, (III.14.1). How is this world born from That, dissolve into That itself, and live by That alone? -- this has to be explained. After that, it has been said that the whole world becomes satisfied when a man of knowledge eats. That becomes logical if the Self in all beings be one, but not so if the selves are different. What is the nature of that unity? For this purpose this sixth chapter is begun.

6.1.1 The story of the father and the son is for showing the utmost essentiality of knowledge. Asa, there was; svetaketuh, Svetaketu by name; aruneyah, grandson of Aruna. The word ha is used to indicate a past incident. Aruni, pita, the father, considering that he (Svetaketu) was fit for acquiring knowledge, and noticing that the time for his initiation was going to be over; uvaca ha, said; tam, to him, the son; 'Svetaketo, O Svetaketu; vasa, live; brahmacaryam, as a celibate, by going to a teacher suitable for our line. esides, it is not proper somya, O good looking one; that any one asmat kulinah, belonging to our line; bhavati iva, should pose as; brahma-bandhuh, a relative of the brahmins; ananucya, without study (of the Vedas).' brahma-bandhu is one who mentions brahmins as his relatives, while he himself does not behave like a brahmin. From this it is inferred that his father would be absent from home, because of which reason he (Aruni) whould not initiated his son though he himself was qualified for this.

Svetaketu, when he was told by his father; dvadasavarsah, at the age of twelve years; sah ha, he; upetya, after going to the teacher; (and) adhitya, having studied; till he was caturvimsativarsah, twenty-four years of age; sarvan, all the four; vedan, Vedas and having grasped their meaning; eyaya, returned home; mahamanah, conceited--one with a grave mind, one whose mind thinks of oneself as greater than others; anucanamant, proud, one who is apt to think of oneself as being a learned man; stabdhah, immodest, one whose nature is not modest. Seeing him, the son, immodest and proud like this, behaving unlike himself; pita, the father; uvaca, said, with a view to inculcating good behaviour; 'Svetaketo, O Svetaketu; yat nu, now that; asi, you are; mahamanah, conceited; anucanamani, proud of being a leaned man; stabdhah, immodest; idam, like this, what excellence has come down to you from the teacher? Uta apraksyah, did you ask your teacher; about tam, that; adesam, instruction? The word adesa is derived in the sense of that which is and a teacher; or, that through which the supreme brahman is spoken of.

That instruction is being elaborated: 'Yena, through which instruction; asrutam, the unheard of, that which is different from what has been heard; bhavati, becomes; srutam, heard; amatam, the unthought of; becomes matam, thought of -- which has not been discussed becomes discussed; avijnatam, the unknown; becomes discussed; vijnatam, the unknown; becomes vijnatam, known - the undetermined becomes determined?' Even after studying all the Vedas, and even after knowing all other things that are to be known, a man indeed remains unfulfilled of his purpose till he does not know the reality of the Self. This is understood from the story. Having heard of an extraordinary thing like this, and thinking in his mind, 'How can it be possible to have knowledge of something through the knowledge of some other thing--which (process) is not a well-known fact', he said, 'hagavah, O venerable sir; katham nu, in what way; is sah adesah, that instruction; bhavati, imparted?'

6.1.4 'Listen to how that instruction is imparted, somya, O good looking one; Yatha, as in the world; through the knowledge of a single mrtpindena, lump of earth which is the (material) cause of a water-pot, pitcher, etc.; sarvam, all other things, all transformations of that earth; mrnmayam, which are made of earth; become vijnatam, known.'

Objection: How can it be that when a lump of earth is known as the material cause, a product that is different becomes known?
Reply: This fault does not arise, since the product is non-different from the cause. As for your argument that through the knowledge of something different, some other thing cannot be known, it would have been truly so if the product were something different from its material cause. ut the product is not thus different from its material cause.
Objection: How then do they say in this world. 'This is the cause, and this one is its transformation'?
Reply: Listen, Vacarambhanam, (it) has speech as its basis, its beginning is in speech. Which is that? It is vikarah, the transformation; which is namadheyam, name only. The suffix dheyat is added after a word to mean the word (nama) itself. It is only a name dependent merely on speech. (Apart form that) there is no substance called transformation. In reality mrttika iti, earth as such; eva satyam (is the thing that) truly exists.

6.1.5. And, somya, O good looking one; yatha, as; through the knowledge of ekena, a lump of lohamanina, gold; all other vikarah, transformation, like bracelet, diadem, armlet, etc.; become vijnatam, known; 'All transformation has speech as its basis', etc. is to be explained as before.

6.1.6. 'Somya, O good looking one; yatha, as; through the knowledge of ekena, one; nakha-nikrntanena, nailcutter, suggestive of a lump of iron; sarvam, all; vikarah, transformaitons of iron; becomes vijnatam, known'--the remaining portion is to be explained as before. The citing of many illustrations is meant for understanding the multiform differences in the things illustrated, as also for firm conviction. 'Somya, O good looking one; evam, thus; bhavati, is sah adesah, that instruction which was spoken of by me.'

6.1.7. The other one said to his father who had spoken thus: 'Te, those who were; my bhagavantah, venerable teachers; they na vai nunam, did not certainly; avedisuh, know; etat, this thing which has been spoken of by your venerable self. Hi, for; yat, if; avedisyan, they had known; etat, this thing; katham, why; na avaksyan, should they not have told; me, me who am meritorious, devoted, and obedient. Thereby I conclude that they did not know.'

Although any deficiency of a teacher should not be spoken of still, he did so for fear of being sent again to the teacher's house! 'Therefore, bhagavan, venerable sir; you yourself bravitu, may tell; me, me; of tat, that thing by knowing which I can have omniscience.' Being told so, the father uvaca ha, said; 'Somya, O good looking one; tatha, let this be so.'

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