Author Topic: CHAPTER 6 - SECTION 8  (Read 366 times)


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« on: April 07, 2019, 02:19:20 PM »
6.8.1. The mind into which the supreme Deity has entered as the individual soul, like a man entering into a mirror in the form of a reflection, or like the sun etc. entering into water etc. that has been known as made up of food, and associated with speech and vital force made up of fire and water (respectively). The individual soul, in identification with that mind and staying in it, becomes able to have such behaviors as thinking, seeing, hearing etc. and on the cessation of that attains its own nature as the Deity.
This has been mentioned in another Upanisad: 'It thinks as it were, and shakes as it were. Being identified with dreams it transcends this world' (Br. IV.3.7); 'That Self is indeed Brahman, as well as identified with the intellect, the mind', etc. (Br. IV.4.5); '(That radiant infinite Being)...puts the body aside in the dream state', etc. (Br. IV.3.11); 'When It does the function of living, It is called the vital force', etc. (Br. I.4.7). With a view to illustrating to his son the individual soul which is such, which when existing in the mind is called the mind, which abstains from all sense objects when the mind, which abstains from all sense objects when the mind ceases functioning, and which becomes identified with the supreme Deity and continues to abide in It,

uddalakah arunih, Uddalaka, son of Aruna; uvaca ha, said; svetaketum, to Svetaketu, his son; (Know from me) svapnantam, about deep-sleep, the core of dream. The word svapna means that state where three is the function of seeing (things in the forms of impressions of the past). The core of that is deep-sleep. Or svapnantam means the essential nature of dream. In that sense also the meaning is deep-sleep, which follows from the text, 'He attains his own Self.' For the knowers of Brahman do not admit attainment of its own nature by the individual soul, in any state other than deep-sleep. Just as the reflection of a person in a mirror attains the person himself when the mirror is removed, in a similar way indeed, there (in the deep-sleep) when mind etc. cease functioning, that supreme Deity which, in the form of a conscious individual soul as Its reflection, had entered into the mind for the manifestation of name and form, attains Its true nature by giving up Its appearance as the individual soul called the mind.

So it is understood that deep-sleep itself is meant by the word svapnantam. But the condition in which is sleeping man sees dreams, that dream experience is associated with happiness and sorrow, and hence it is the effect of virtue and vice. For it is well-known that virtue and vice are the producers of happiness and sorrow. And it is reasonable that virtue and vice, being based on ignorance and desire, become the producers of happiness and sorrow. And it is reasonable that virtue and vice, being based on ignorance and desire, become the producers of happiness, misery, and their experience, but not otherwise. In this way, dream is indeed associated with ignorance, desire, and action, which are causes of transmigration. Therefore (in dream) the soul does not merge in its nature. This is established also by such Upanisadic texts as: '(This from of is untouched by good work and untouched by evil work, for he is then beyond all the woes of his heart (intellect)' (Br.IV. 3.22);'That is his form (in which all objects of desire have been attained and are but the Self, and) which is free from desires and devoid of grief' (Br.IV. 3.21); 'This indeed is the supreme lis (Br.IV. 3.33).

With the intention, 'I shall show the inherent nature of the Deity, freed from individual selfhood, in deep-sleep itself', he said; 'Somya, O good- looking one; vijanihi, learn, fully understand; me, from me; svapnanatam, about-deep-sleep.' This is the meaning.

When does and deep-sleep occur?
That is being answered: Yatra, when, at which time; a person going to sleep comes to get this name, svapiti, 'He sleeps', as is well-known in the world.   Tha this name is a secondary one is being shown by stating: When a person is spoken of as 'He sleeps', then, he bhavati, becomes; sampannah, identified; sata, with Existence; i.e. he becomes united with, identified with the Deity under discussion, referred to by the word Existence. Having discarded the nature of the individual soul which has entered into the mind and which is produced from the contact with the mind etc., apitah bhavati, he attains; evam, his own self, his nature as Existence which is the ultimate Reality.

Tasmat, therefore the common people acaksate, speak of; enam, this one; as svaptiti, 'He sleeps' (lit. 'he is in his own self'); hi, because; apitah bhavati, he attains svam, his own Self. The idea is that, even from the fact of the secondary name (svapiti) being well-known, it is understood that he attains his own Self. How again, is this attaining of one's own Self well-known among common people?

Since deep-sleep is caused by fatigue during the waking state, therefore people say so. Since one becomes fatigued in the waking state due to experiencing numerous strains such as happiness, misery, etc. resulting from virtue and vice, therefore there follows a cessation from their own activities by the fatigued organs, weakened due to various activities. The Upanisad also says: 'The organ of speech invariably gets tired, and so does the eye' (Br. I.5) etc. So also there is the other text:   'The organ of speech is absorbed, the eye absorbed, the ear is absorbed, and the mind is absorbed' (Br. II.1.17).   
In this way these and other organs become absorbed in the vital force. It is the untired vital force alone that keeps awake in the body which is its abode. Then, the individual soul repairs to the Deity which is its own Self, for the removal of its exhaustion. There can be no removal of fatigue by dwelling anywhere other than in its own nature. Hence the well-known belief among the common people that one attains one's Self is reasonable. Indeed, it is seen in the world that people suffering from fever etc. rest after being cured of them, when they become their earlier selves. It is reasonable that it must be so here as well.
And this is supported by such Upanisadic texts as:
'As a hawk or a falcon flying in the sky becomes tired, (and stretching its wings is bound for its nest...)' (Br. IV.3.19).

6.8.2. With regard to the matter spoken of, here is an illustration. Sah, that illustration is this; Yatha, as; sakunih, a bird; prbadhah, bound; sutrena, by a string in the hand of a hunter; patitva, flying; disam disam, in all directions, desirous of getting freed; (but) alabdhva, faliling to get; ayatanam, an abode for resting; anyatra, anywhere else other than the place of bondage; upasrayate, repairs; bandhanam, to the place of bondage; eva, alone; evam eva, in this very way, as in this example; so khalu, indeed; somya, O good- looking one; tat manah, that mind under discussion, the mind which has sixteen parts and has been determined as nourished by food,--(i.e.) the individual soul that has entered there, continues there, and is characterized by it, an is figuratively indicated by the words 'that mind', as in the metaphor 'shouting of the platform' (In common parlance, a platform is said to be shouting, when in fact someone standing on it is doing so.)--, that individual soul possessed of the limiting adjunct called mind; after patitva, flying, going; disam disam, in all directions, i.e. getting experiences in the form of happiness, sorrow, etc. promted by ignorance, desire, and action during the states of waking and dream; and alabdhva, failing to get; ayatanam, an abode, a resting place; anyatra, anywhere else other than its own self called existence; upasrayate, resorts; to pranam, eva, the vital force itself. The supreme Deity called Existence is figuratively spoken of prana which is the support of the totality of body and organs. For this accords with such Upanisadic texts as: '(Those who have known) the Vital force of the vital force...' (Br. IV.4.18);   '(He appears like the mind, has Prana as the body, has the form of consciousness...'(III.14.2). Therefore, it resorts to the vital force, to that Deity alone called the vital force. Hi, for; somya, O good-looking one; manah, the mind; is pranabandhanam, bound to the vital force. That mind which has prana, vital force as its bandhanam, bondage, is called prana-bandhanam. The mind has its abode in the Deity figuratively indicated by the word prana. By the word mind is figuratively meant the individual soul.

6.8.3. Thus, with the help of the well-known fact of a man being called 'He sleeps' ('He attains his own Self'), having shown to the son the real nature of the individual soul, which is the root of the world, (now) with a view to showing Existence as the root of the world, even through a succession of causes and effects beginning from food etc. the father said: Vijanihi, learn; me, from me; about asana-pipase, hunger and thirst. Asana, where the ya has been dropped (asanaya has become asana), is the desire to eat. Pipasa is the wish to drink. The meaning is, 'Learn about the true nature of hunger and thirst'. Yatra, when, at which time; purusah, a person; etat-nama, gets this name, is said to have this name--. What is that? 'Asisisati, he wants to eat.'
Due to what reason does a person come to have that name then? That is being answered. At that time, apah, water that is drunk; nayante, leads; the hard aistam, food eaten by a person. The water softens it and transforms it into chyle. After than the eaten food becomes digested, and then he gets the figurative name 'He wants to eat'. For when food becomes digested all creatures want to eat. This being so, the name of water as 'asanaya, leader of food' is well-known from its leading the eaten food. In this regard there are these illustrations: Yatha, as a cowherd; is called gonayah because he leads the cattle; similarly a keeper of horses is called asvanayah because he leads horses.
A king or a general is called purusanayah because he leads men. In this way, tat, at that time; common people acaksate, call; apah, water; by the name asanaya, leader of food (after dropping the aspirate h (It should have been asanayah.)).   

Tatra, thi being so, this body is constituted by the eaten food led into the form of chyle by water. Just as sungam, a sprout shoots up from a tiny seed of a banyan; somya, O good-looking one; vijanihi, know this sprout, a product called the body; that has utpatitam, sprung up like the sprout of a banyan etc. What is to be known there? That is being stated: Listen! This body being a product like a sprout, na anulam, cannot be without a root (source). Being told so, Svetaketu said, 'If this body which is such, like the sprout of a banyan tree etc. has some root, where can its root be?' Being asked so, the father said:

6.8.4. Kva, where; syat, can be; mulam, the root; tasya, of that which is such? eing questioned thus the father replied; Of that where can be the root; anyatra, apart; annat, from being in food? The idea is that food alone is the root. How?
For food that is eaten becomes softened by water, and being digested by the fire in the stomach gets transformed into chyle etc. Form chyle comes blood, from blood flesh, from flesh fat, from fat bones, from bones marrow, and from marrow semen. Similarly, food eaten by a woman also gets transformed into blood through the same process starting from chyle.
Through the union of those semen and blood which are the products of food, and which are in this way replenished by the food eaten everyday--like a wall built up from lumps of earth--, the sprout of the body, having its root in food and being nourished everyday, stands accomplished. This is the meaning.   As for food which was pointed out as the root of the sprout of the body, that too, being subject to destruction and origination like the body, must be a sprout sprung up from something else as its root. Having this idea in mind he said: As the sprout of the body has food as its root, evam eva khalu, in this very way; somya, O good-looking one; through food which is a sprout and a product, anvicca, understand; apah, water; as mulam, the root; annasya sungasya, of food which is the sprout. Since water also has destruction and origination, therefore it is also a sprout. Hence, somya, O good looking one; through water which is a sprout and a product, anviccha, understand; tejah, fire mulam, as the root, the cause.

Again, since fire also has destruction and origination, therefore, somya, O good-looking one; through fire which is a sprout; understand sat, Existence, which is one without a second and is the supreme Reality; mulam, as the root. The Existence on which are superimposed due to ignornace, all these transformations that have speech only as the basis, and indeed, are unreal like the appearance of snake etc. on a rope--, That is the root this universe.

Therefore, somya, O good-looking one; sarvah, all; imah, these; prajah, beings, characterized as moving and nonmoving; sat-mulah, have Existence as their root, have got Existence as their cause. Not only have they existence as their root, but even now during their continuance, they have Existence as their abode. For, without having earth as their basis, pot etc. can have no existence or continuance. Therefore, since beings sadayatanah, have Existence as their abode. Beings that have sat, Existence as ayatana abode, are sadayatanah. And in the end satpratisthah, they have Existence as their place of merger. Those are called satpratisthah which have Existence only as their place of dissolution, end, termination, and culmination.

6.8.5. Atha, now, with the help of water which is the sprout, Existence has to be understood as the root. Hence it is said: Yatra, when, at which time; purusa person; etat nama, gets this name; 'pipasati, he is thirsty'--. This name is also figurative like 'He is hungry'. Water is the leader of the eaten food which has been transformed into cycle. Owing to excess of water, the body, which sprouts form food, would have slackened unless it (water) was dried up by fire. Since water that has been transformed into the body is continuously being dried up by fire, a person gets the desire to drink. Then the man is called, 'He is thirsty'. That fact which is such stated is stated in: Tat, at that time; tejah eva, fire itself; nayate, leads; pitam, what is drunk. It is fire which, by drying up water etc. that are drunk transforms them into blood, vital force, etc. in the body. 'Yatha, as; gonayah, a leader of cattle, etc. have to be explained as before (VI.8.3). Evam, in this way; people acaste, call; tat, that; tejah, fire iti, as; udanya, a leader of water. That which leads water is called udanya. (The form of the word as) udanya is a Vedic lincence. 'Tatra, this being so', etc. are also to be explained as before (VI.8.3). This thing called the body is the sprout of water also; it is not anything else. The remaining portion is to be explained as before.

6.8.6. From the force of the context (because all things in the world are made of three elements mixed together--A.G.) it follows that this thing which is called the body, is also the sprout of fire. Hence, with the help of the body which is the sprout of water, it is understood that water is the root. With the help of water which is the sprout, fire becomes known as the root. With the help of fire as the sprout, Existence becomes understood as the root, as before (VI.8.4). I this way indeed, the father told his son to understand through the succession of food etc. that the body which is the sprout is made up of fire, water and food, and has speech only as its basis. Its root is Existence, the ultimate Reality, fearless, taintless, and painless. After having made him understand this, the father, by pointing out the two names, 'He is hungry' and 'He is thirsty', thinks that whatever else was to be spoken of in this context stands explained, viz that fire, water and food taken by a person, without losing their own identities, nourish the body, i.e. the aggregate of body and organs which is a sprout. With this idea in mind the father hints at what has been said earlier. (Somya, O good-looking one;) yatha nu khalu, as to how, the process through which; ekaika, each one; of imah tisrah devatah, these three gods called fire, water and food; bhavati, becomes; trivrt trivrt, three-fold and three-fold; prapya, after coming in contact; purusam, with a person; tat, that; uktam, has been stated; purastat eva, already before. There itself it has been said that the eaten food becomes divided in three ways etc. (VI.5.1). It has been said that, of food etc. which have been eaten, the middle constituents nourish the body made of seven ingredients (Skin, blood, flesh, marrow, bones and semen.): It becomes flesh, blood, marrow and bone' (VI.5.1-3). And it has also been stated that those which are the subtle constituents nourish the mind, the vital force and speech, which constitute the group of internal organs of the body:

'It becomes mind, vital force and speech' (VI.6.2-4).   It is being stated how that vital force presided over by the individual soul, becoming detached from the previous body goes to the next one, when the (earlier) body which is an aggregate of the vital forces and the organs disintegrates:

Somya, O good- looking one; asya purusasya, of this person; prayatah, when he departs, is about to die; his vak, (organ of) speech; sampadyate, is withdrawn; manasi, into the mind. Then at that time the relatives say, 'He is not speaking'. The action of speech is surely preceded by that of the mind, because the Upanisad says, 'Whatever one things in one's mind, one expresses that in speech.' When speech is withdrawn into the mind, the mind continues to exist with the function of thinking only. When manah, the mind also is withdrawn, then the mind becomes merged; prane, in the vital force, as in deep sleep. Then, the relatives nearby say, 'He does not comprehend.' At that time pranah, the vital force has the breath moving upward, and as shown in samvarga-vidya (meditation on merger), withdraws the outer organs into itself (IV.3.3) causing spasms in the hands, feet, etc. as though rending as-under the vital parts; and with an outward movement, becoming gradually withdrawn, merges tejasi, into fire. At that time the relatives say, 'He does not move.' Doubting whether he is dead or alive, touching the body and feeling warmth, they say, 'The body is warm, he is alive.' When tejah, fire also, indicated by the warmth, gets withdrawn; then that fire merges parasyam devatayam, in the supreme Deity. At that time, when the mind becomes thus withdrawn and reaches its own source, the individual soul also, residing in it, begins to be withdrawn owing to the withdrawal of its cause, as at the time of deep-sleep. If the soul is withdrawn aiming at reaching the Truth, then it verily merges in Existence. It does not rise up again from deep sleep for getting another body. This is like somebody in the world, living in a fearful place, somehow reaching a place that is without fear. But any other soul that has not realised the Self, rises up from that very source, arising from where a soul becomes embodied, and like one rising from deep-sleep it again enters into the mesh of a body after death.

6.8.7. Say yah, that which has been spoken of as Existence; is esah, this; anima, subtle essence, the Source of the universe. Sarvam, all, idam, this; aitadatmyam, has got That as the Self. All that has got this Existence as its Self is etadatma. The state of having That as the Self is aitadatmyam. This whole universe has become possessed of a Self through this Self which is called Existence; it has no other Self which is called Existence; it has no other Self which is subject to transmigration. This follows from other Upanisadic texts such as, 'There is no other hearer but This, no other thinker but This' (Br. III.8.11). And the Self through which all this universe becomes possessed of its Self (Existence), tat, That itself is the source called Existence; satyam, the Truth, the supreme Reality.
Hence sah, that indeed; is atma, the Self of the world, its inmost essence, its quintessence, its very reality, because the word Self, when not preceded by any other word, conventionally denotes the inmost Self, like the conventional words cow etc. Hence tvam, thou; asi, art; tat, that Existence; svetatketo, O Svetaketu.   Having been taught so, the son said: hagavan vijnapayatu, may the venerable sir explain; mam, to me; bhuyah, eva, again. What has been said by the venerable sir, that is a matter of doubt to me as to the reason why, day after day, all creatures repair into Existence during deep-sleep, and yet they do not know 'We have become identified with Existence', even after being merged in Existence. Therefore, please make me understand with the help of an illustration. Being told so, the father uvaca ha, said: Tathastu, let it be so; somya, O good-looking one.

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