Author Topic: Mantras 1-18  (Read 370 times)

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Mantras 1-18
« on: April 07, 2019, 03:42:46 PM »
1. One who lords it over is It; [It is derived from the root is, meaning 'to rule' or 'to have power'.] I'sa, by It, by the Lord. He who is the supreme Ruler and supreme Self of all is the Lord. For as the indwelling soul of all, He is the Self of all beings and as such rules all. (So) I'sa, by that Lord, in His true form as the Self; vasyam, should be covered. What (is to be covered)? Idam sarvam yat kim ca, all this whatsoever; jagat, moves; jagatyam, on the earth. All this is to be covered by one's own Self, the Lord, through His supreme reality (present in the realization): 'As the indwelling Self (of all), I am all this'; all this that is unreal, whether moving or not moving, is to be covered by one's own supreme Self. As the adventitous bad odour of sandal, agaru, etc., resulting from moisture etc., because of their contact with water etc., is covered up by their natural smells through the process of rubbing those woods themselves, just so, (whatsoever moves on the earth will be abandoned through the contemplation of the Self which is the supreme Truth). 'Whatever moves' means the apparent duality, the effect of ignorance, which is characterized by such ideas as doership, enjoyership, etc., and which is superimposed on one's own Self; and the phrase 'on the earth', having been used illustratively (for all the worlds), it follows that all the bundle of modifications known as name, form, and action will be abandoned through the contemplation of the Self which is the supreme Truth. He, who is thus engaged in the thought of the Self as God, has competence only for renouncing the three kinds of desire for son etc., [For son, wealth, and worlds (vide Br. IV. iv. 22).] and not for karma. Tena tyaktena, through that detachment. Tyaktena means, through detachment, (and not 'by any abandoned thing'); for, a son or a servant, when abandoned or dead, does not protect one, since he has no connection with oneself. So the meaning of the Vedic word (tyaktena) is indeed this-'through renunciation'.
Bhunjithah, protect. You who have thus renounced desires, ma gradhah, do not covet, do not cherish any desire for wealth. Do not long for kasya svid, anybody's -either your own or somebody else's; dhanam, wealth -this is the meaning. The word svit is a meanigless particle. Or the meaning is this: Do not covet. Why ? Kasya svid dhanam, whose is wealth ? -this (question) is used in the sense of denial, because nobody has any wealth which can be coveted. The idea is this: Everything has been renounced through this thought of the 'Lord' - 'All this is but the Self-, so that all this belongs to the Self, and the Self is all. Therefore do not have any handering for things that are unreal.
So far as the knower of the supreme Self is concerned, the purport of the Vedic text (i.e. of the first verse) is this: that the Self is to be saved through firm devotedness to the knowledge of the Self after the renunciation of the threefold desire for sons etc. As for the other person who is unable to cognize the Self because of his mental preoccupation with the nonSelf, the Vedic text (i.e. the second verse) imparts this instruction:

2. Kurvan eva iha, verily by doing here-only by accomplishing; karmani, karmas-Agnihotra (sacrifice) etc.; jijiviset, one should wish to live; `satamsamah, a hundred years. That much has been ascertained to be the longest span of human life. So, through a restatement of that well-known fact, it is being enjoined that if one would desire to live a hundred years, one should do so only by performing karma. Evam tvayi, for you, such as you who have this kind of hankering for life; nare, for a man-for one identifying oneself only with one's human personality; na asti, there is not; anyatha, any other mode. itah, other than this-than the present mode of life, viz of performing rituals like Agnihotra etc., by which method, karma na lipyate, bad karma may not cling, i.e. one may not get attached to karma. Therefore, one should desire to live by doing only such karmas as Agnihotra etc., which are enjoined by scriptures.

Objection: But how is it known that the previous verse teaches the pursuit of knowledge for the man of renunciation, and the second one (teaches the path of) Karma for one who is unable to renounce?
The answer is: Do you not remember what was pointed out (in the introduction) that the antithesis between knowledge and karma is irremovable like a mountain ? Here also it has been said: 'He who would desire to live should do so by performing work'; and 'All this should be covered by the Lord; protect (the Self) through that detachment; do not covet anybody's wealth.' Moreover, the Vedic conclusion is this: 'One should not hanker after life or death, and should repair to the forest.' Renunciation has been ordained by saying, 'He shall not return from there (sannyasa).' And the difference between the results of these two (paths) will be spoken of (in verses 7 & 18) seriatim. Following on the creation of the cosmos, verily these two paths did emerge-the path of karma being the earlier one, and the other being renunciation, consisting in the giving up of the three kinds of desire (for son etc.), in accordance with the latter path of detachment. Of these, the path of renunciation is the more excellent. And in the Taittiriya Aranyaka it is said, 'Renunciation did, indeed, excel'. 'These then are the two paths on which the Vedas are established: the one consists of duty characterized by attachment, and the other is clearly marked out by detachment' (Mbh. Santiparva, 241.6)-this and similar ideas have been declared, after much, deliberation, as his firm conviction, to his son (Suka) by Vyasa, the teacher of the Vedas. The distinction between the two we shall show hereafter.
Now begins this verse for decrying the man who is devoid of knowledge:

3. Asuryah, of devils; as compared with the non-dual state of the supreme Self, even gods are asuras, devils; and the worlds belonging to them are asuryah. The word nama is a meaningless indeclinable. Te, those; lokah (lit. worlds)-(derived) from the root luk-means the births in which the results of karma are perceived or enjoyed; avrtah, are covered; andhena, by blinding-characterized by the inability to see-; tamasa, darkness-in the form of ignorance. Tan, to them-that extend up to the motionless (trees etc.); pretya, after departing, giving up this body; gacchanti, go-in accordance with their karma and meditation (on gods etc.); atmahanah, those that kill the Self. Who are they? Janah, (the common people,) those that are ignorant. How do they kill the eternal Self? By keeping concealed through the fault of ignorance the Self which exists. The experience of the Self as free from decrepitude, death, etc. (present in the realization, 'I am free from decrepitude and death'), that comes as a result of the existence of the Self, remains concealed, as is the consciousness of a person who is killed. So the ordinary ignorant persons are called the killers of the Self. Because of that very fault of slaying the Self, they are subject to birth and death.

What is the nature of the Self by slaying which the ignorant people transmigrate, and contrariwise, the men of knowledge, the non-killers of the Self, become freed? This is being answered:

4. Anejat, unmoving. The root ejr, implies shaking. Shaking is motion, deviation from one's own condition. It is devoid of this, i.e. It is ever of the same form. And It is ekam, one, in all beings. It is javiyah, faster; manasah, than the mind, characterized by volition etc.

Objection: How can there be such contradictory statements that It is constant and motionless, and yet faster than the mind?
Answer: There is no inconsistency, for this is possible from the standpoint of the states of being conditioned and unconditioned. As such, It is spoken of as 'unmoving, one', in respect of Its own unconditioned aspect. And by reason of Its following the limiting adjunct, the mind, the internal organ characterized by volition and doubt, (It appears to be subject to modifications). The mind though encased in the body in this world, is able to reach such distances as the world of Brahma in a single moment through volition; and hence the mind is well known as the fastest thing in the world. When that (speedy) mind travels fast to the world of Brahma etc., the reflection of the Self that is consciousness is perceived to have reached there, as it were, even earlier; and hence It is said to be (manaso javiyah) faster than the mind. Devah, the gods-the senses, the organs of knowledge such as eyes etc. are the devas because of revealing (dyotana) (their objects)-; na apnuvan, could not overtake; enat, It, the reality of the Self that is under discussion. The mind is faster than these (senses). Because of the interposition of the activity of the mind, (between the Self and the senses), even a semblance of the Self does not at all become an object of perception to the senses. (The senses could not overtake It,) since, being all pervasive like space, It purvam arsat, had run ahead-reached the goal even before the swift mind. Though that all-pervasive entity of the Self, in Its real unconditioned state is devoid of all worldly attributes and is subject to no mutation, yet (by reason of following the limiting adjunct, the mind), it appears, to the eyes of the non-discriminating foolish people, to be experiencing all empirical modifications brought about by the limiting adjuncts, and it also appears to be diverse in relation to the individual bodies. Hence the verse said so. Tat, That; atyeti, outruns-as it were; dhavatah anyan, all other fast moving ones (runners), viz the mind, speech, the senses, etc. which are distinct from the Self. The sense 'as it were' is suggested by the verse itself by the use of (the expression) tisthat, remaining stationary, which implies, 'Itself remaining unchanged'. Tasmin, It being there-while the entity of the Self endures, which by Its nature is everlasting consciousness; matarisva, Air-so called because it moves (svayati) in space (matari)-which sustains all life, which is of the nature of activity, on which depend all bodies and senses, in which all inhere, which is called Sutra [Hiranyagarbha, who is possessed of the twofold power of action and knowledge, is called Sutra when concieved of as the principle of action.] (thread), and which holds together the whole world, that Matarisva; dadhati, allots; apah, the activities [Since the Vedic sacrifices are performed with liquids like soma, ghee, milk, etc., and life, too, is dependent on liquids, apah (water) is figuratively used for action-the cause for the effect, i.e. the activities of life.]-consisting in the efforts of creatures, as well as flaming, burning, shining, raining, etc., in the case of fire, sun, cloud, etc. Or dadhati may mean 'supports', in accordance with such Vedic texts as, 'From His fear the wind blows,' etc. (Tai. II. viii. 1). The meaning is that all these modifications of cause and effects occur so long as the eternally conscious reality of the Self, the source of everything, endures.
Since the Vedic mantras are untiring in their emphasis, the idea imparted by the previous verse is being stated again:

5. Tat, That, the entity of the Self that is under consideration; That ejati, moves; and That again, by Itself na ejati, does not move. The meaning is that, though in Itself It is motionless, It seems to move.

Moreover, tat dure, That is far off-That seems to be far away, since It is unattainable by the ignorant even in hundreds of millions of years; tadvantike-split into tat u antike-, That is very near indeed, to the men of knowledge; It being their Self, It is not only far off, but is near too. Tat antah, That is inside; asya sarvasya, of all this-in accrodance with the Vedic text: "The Self that is within all" (Br. III.iv. 1)-, of all this world, consisting of name, form, and activity, Tat, That; u, also; sarvasya asya bahyatah, is outside all this, because It is all-pervasive like space; and It is inside, because It is extremely subtle. Besides, It is without interstices, (It is continuous), in accordance with the Vedic text: 'Pure intelligence alone' (Br. IV. v. 13).

6. Yah, he who-the mendicant who wants to be freed; anupasyati, sees; sarvani bhutani, all beings-beginning from the Unmanifested and ending with the immobile; (as existing) atmani eva, in the Self itself-i.e. he does not see them as different from the Self-; sarvabhutesu ca, and in all those very beings; sees atmanam, the Self-sees the Self even of those beings as his own Self thus: 'Just as I, the soul of the body which is an aggregate of causes and effects, am the witness of all perceptions, and as such I am the source of its consiousness, and am pure and attributeless, similarly in that very aspect of mine am I the soul of all, beginning from the Unmanifested and ending with the immobile';-he, who realizes the unconditioned Self in all beings thus, tatah, by virtue of that vision; na vijugupsate, feels no hatred, does not hate. This is only a restatement of a known fact. For, this is a matter of experience that all revulsion comes to one who sees something as bad and different from oneself, but for one who sees only the absolutely pure Self as a continuous entity, there is no other object that can be the cause of revulsion. Therefore he does not hate.
Another verse also expresses this very purport:

7. Yasmin vijanatah, when to the man who has realized the supreme Reality, (or-in the aforesaid Self-of the man who has realized the supreme Reality-,in which); sarvani bhutani, all those beings; atma eva bhut, have become the Self alone-as a result of the realization of the supreme Self; tatra, at that time (or, to that Self); kah mohah kah sokah, what delusion and what sorrow can there be? Sorrow and delusion come to the ignorant man who does not perceive the seed of desire and actions, but not anupasyatah ekatvam, to the man who realizes the absolute oneness of the Self which is like that of space.
The impossibility of grief and delusion, the effects of ignorance, having been indicated through the question, 'What delusion and what sorrow can there be?, the total eradication of worldly existence, with its cause, has been shown ipso facto. This verse indicates what the Self that was spoken of in the previous verses really is in Its own nature:

8. Sah, He, the aforesaid Self; paryagat, is all-pervasive, like space-(the word) being derived from pari, on all sides, and agat, went. He is sukram, pure, bright, i.e. resplendent; akayam, bodiless, i.e. without a subltle body; avranam, without, wound, scatheless; asnaviram, without sinews-one in whom there is no sinew. By the two expressions, 'without wound', and 'without sinews', the gross body is negated. Suddham, taintless, devoid of the dirt of ignorance; thereby is negated a casual body. Apapaviddham, untouched by sin in the form of merit and demerit etc. [The idea is that the Self transcends morality, though a man of knowledge never acts immorally, his past training being a sufficient guarantee against this.] The expressions beginning with sukram are to be converted into masculine, because the introduction is made with sah paryagat, and the conclusion with kavih manisi, in the masculine form. Kavih (omniscient) means the seer of the kranta, past, [By implication, past, present, and future.] i.e. seer of all, as the Vedic text says, 'There is no other seer but this' (Br. III. viii. 11). Manisi means the ruler of the mind, i.e. the omniscient God. Paribhuh is one who exists above all (transcendent). Svayambhuh means he who exists by himself.
He, the all, becomes (bhavati) by Himself (svayam) all that He transcends, and He is also the Transcendental One. In this sense He is svayam-bhuh, selfexistent. He, the ever free (all-powerful) Lord, because of His omniscience, vyadadhat, has alloted, i.e. distributed in the proper way (accroding to individual competence); arthan, the duties; yathatathyatah, duly, as it should be, in consonance with actual result and endeavour; sasvatibhyah samadhyah, to the eternal years, to the Prajapatis (creators) called the years.

Here, the first purport of the vedas, viz devotedness to knowledge after renouncing all desires, has been stated by the opening verse, 'All this should be covered by the Lord....Do not covet anybody's wealth.' And where this devotedness to knowledge is impossible for the man of ignorance, continuance in the path of duty-which is the second purport of the Vedas-, has been stated in the second verse thus: 'By doing karmas, indeed, should one wish to live.' This division of paths of life, as shown in these verses, has also been indicated in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad. Thus from the text, 'He desired, "He desired, "Let me have a wife", etc. (Br. I. iv. 17), it can be clearly understood that works are meant for a man who is ignorant and hankers after results. And from the sentence, 'The mind is his soul, and speech his wife', etc. (Br. I. iv. 17), it can be clearly understood that ignorance and desires are the characteristics of a man devoted to work. So the result of this work is the creation of seven kinds of fruits [Br. I .v. 1-3: i. The common human food, ii-iii. huta and prahuta or Darsa and Purnamasa, which are food for gods; iv-vi mind, speech, and vital force, which are foods for the soul; and vii. milk, which is food for animals.] and continuance in a state of identification with them under the idea that they are the Self. And by the text, 'What shall we achieve through children, we to whom the Self which we have attained is the goal?' etc. (Br. IV. iv. 22), it has been shown that for those who have realized the Self by renouncing the threefold desire for wife etc. (i.e. for son, wealth, and heavens), there can only be continuance in the Self Itself, as opposed to the continuance in the path of karma. After the condemnation of the ignorant man by the verse, 'That worlds of the devils' etc. (3), the true nature of the Self has been revealed by the verses ending with, 'He is all-pervasive,' etc. (8) , to those men of renunciation who are steadfast in knowledge, so as to show that they alone are qualified for this and not thosse who have desires. So also in the Svetasvatara Upanishad (VI. 21) this has been separately spoken of thus: 'To those (men of complete renunciation) who had gone beyond all (the four) stages of life, [The student, the householder, the man who has repaired to the forest, and the formal anchorite, as distinguished from the man who renounces either after or for ther sake of God-realization.] he spoke this holiest of things which is fully adored by the seers as a class.' But the present verse, '(Those who worship avidya enter) into blinding darkness,' etc. is meant for those men of activity who have desires and want to live only by doing karma.

Objection: How is it, again, known thus that it is not meant for all?
The answer is: None but a fool will wish to combine with any work, or with any other knowledge (i.e. meditation), that knowledge of the oneness of the Self that has been imparted to the passionless man after the eradication of the distinction of all ends and means, by the text, 'When to the man of realization all beings become the very Self, then what delusion and what sorrow can there be for that seer of oneness?' (7). But the condemnation of the ignorant etc. is done here with a view to achieving a combination (of vidya, i.e. worship or meditation, and karma). And as to that, not the knowledge of the supreme Self, but the thing- viz the divine possession, (i.e.) the meditation on the gods-, that can possibly be combined with the other factor (viz karma), has been spoken of here, logically and scripturally, as the associate of karma, since for this vidya (meditation or worship) a result, different from the knowledge of Brahman has been declared thus:
'Through vidya is attained the world of the gods' (Br. I. v. 16). The denunciation of the separate pursuit of either of these two-vidya and karma-is not merely for the sake of denunciation, but for ther sake of bringing them together, for a distinct result is declared for each by the Vedic texts: "They ascend to this through vidya; "The world of gods (is attained) through vidya (Br. I. v. 16); 'The people following the Southern Path do not reach there'; The world of the Manes through rites' (Br. I. v. 16). and this is so because nothing enjoined by the scriptures can be unworthy of performance.

9. Of these two, they pravisanti, enter; into andhamtamah, blinding darkness, characterized by absence of perception. Who? Ye avidyam, those who (worship) avidya. Avidya is different from vidya, i.e. it is karma, since karma is opposed to vidya; (they) upasate, worship; that avidya in the form of Agnihotra etc. alone. The import is that they perform this whole-heartedly. Bhuyah iva tamah, into darkness which is verily greater; tatah, than that darkness characterized as blindness; te, they, enter. Who? Ye they, on the other hand, who giving up rites; vidyayam u ratah, are engaged only in vidya, are always bent on the meditation on (and worship of) gods.

With regard to that matter, again, the secondary results of meditation and rites are advanced as reasons for the combination of the two, as otherwise, if one of these two closely associated factors bore fruit, while the other did not, they would be related as a part and the whole, (which is absurd) [ Vidya and karma are very often enjoined to be performed separately by men of different tendencies; and separate results are enjoined for them. This would not have been so, if either formed a part of the other.]

10. Anyat eva, a really different (thing); is produced as a result; vidyaya, by vidya (worship of meditation)-this ahuh, they say, because of the Vedic texts: "The world of gods is (won) through meditation' (Br. I. v.16). 'They ascend there through meditation'. Ahuh, they say; anyat avidyaya, by avidya, karma, (rites), a different (result) is produced, because of the Vedic text: 'The world of the Manes (is won) through karma' (Br. I. v. 16). Iti, thus; susruma, we have heard; the teaching, dhiranam, of the wise men, those teachers, ye, who; vicacaksire, explained; nah, to us; tat, that- karma and meditation. The purport is that this is their knowledge traditionally received.

11. Since this is so, therefore vidya and avidya, i.e. meditation on the deities and the rites; yah tad veda ubhayam saha, he who knows these together, knows them as things to be performed by the same person; for that man alone, who thus combines (the two), there occurs the successive acquisition of the two goals in the same individual. This is being said:
Avidyaya, through avidya, through rites such as Agnihotra; mrtyum, death-rites and meditation induced by one's nature; [The impression (created on the mind) by merit, demerit, etc., acquired in a previous birth, as manifested at the time of death, is called nature'-Sankara's commentary on the Gita, XVII. 2.] tirtva, crossing over-over both these which are called death; vidyaya, through vidya, the meditation on the deities; (one) asnute, attains; amrtam, immortality, identification with the deities-that very fact of becoming one with gods being called immortality.
Now, with a view to combining the worship of the Manifested and the Unmanifested, each is being denounced separately:

12. Ye, those who; (worship) asambhutim: Sambhuti means the fact of being born; an effect, too, that has this (quality of being born) is sambhuti; what is other than that is asambhuti, Prakriti, (the primal material) Cause, avidya (ignorance), called avyakrta (the Unmanifested). Thsoe who upasate, worship; this asambhuti known as the unmanifest Prakrti, Cause, and avidya, which is the seed of desire and work, and is blinding by nature; te, they; pravisanti, enter into; andham tamah, blinding darkness, which is of a similar nature. Into tamah, darkness; bhuyah, greater; tatah, than that; iva, as it were; pravisanti, inter; ye, those who; sambhutyam ratah, are devoted to sambhuti-to the manifested Brahman called Hiranyagarbha.
Now is this verse is being stated the difference of the results of the two constituent worships, which (results) necessitate the combination of those worships:

13. Anyat eva, a different result indeed; ahuh, they spoke of; sambhavat, from sambhuti, the Manifested; the idea is that they spoke of the result, comprising supernormal faculties such as becoming subtle etc., accruing from the worship of the manifested Brahman (Hiranyagarbha). Similarly, too, they anyat ahuh, spoke of a different result; asambhavat from asambhuti, from avyakrta-from the worship of the Unmanifested-that which has been referred to in the text, 'they enter into blinding darkness (12) and is called absorption into Prakrti (Primordial Nature) by the pauranikas. Iti, thus; susruma dhiranam, we have heard the speech of the wise; ye, who; vicacaksire, explained that; nah, to us, i.e. explained the result of the worship of the Manifested and the Unmanifested. ['Maya, depending on Consciousness and acting as a limiting adjunct of the supreme Lord, is well known in the other Vedic text: "Know Maya as Prakrti (material cause) and the great Lord as the possessor of Maya" (sv. IV. 10). That Maya and not Brahman is spoken of here by the word Unmanifested, for it is not possible for the unchanging Brahman to be directly the material cause.'-A.G.]. Since this is so, and since both are meant for the same human goal, it is quite proper to combine the worship of the Manifested and the Unmanifested.
This is being said by the verse:

14. He who knows these two-the Unmanifested and the Destruction-together; amrtam asnute, attains immortality-characterized as absorption in Prakrti; asambhutya, through the worship of the Unmanifested; mrtyum tirtva, by crossing over death that is the bundle of faults such as non-possession of supernormal faculty, and demerit, desire, etc.-for, through the worship of Hiranyagarbha is obtained such results as powers of becoming Subtle etc.-, by crossing over death that consists in the absence of Supernormal faculties; vinasena, through Destruction. Vinasa (destruction), which is an attribute of the product (viz the manifested Brahman or Hiranygarbha), is spoken of as identical with the substantive itself. (By crossing death) through that, (i.e.) by the worship of that (vinasa). It is to be noted that is sambhutim ca vinasam ca, there is a presentation by omission of the letter a (before sambhuti) (-which should be asambhuti) in conformity with the mention of the fruit, viz absorption in prakrti (i.e. asambhuti).

It is indicated by the scriptures that absorption into Prakrti is the highest result attainable through human and divine wealth. ['Cattle, land, gold, etc., are human wealth; meditation on gods is divine wealth.'-A.G.] Up to this is the course of worldly existence. Beyond this is the identification with the Self in all, as indicated earlier in the verse: 'When to the man of realization all beings become the very Self (7), which is the result of devotion to knowledge after renouncing all desires. Thus has been revealed the twofold purport of the Vedas, consisting in desire for and renunciation of activity. As to this, the (Satapatha) Brahmana, ending with the Parvargya ritual, is devoted to the revelation of the whole purport of (that section of) the Vedas which is in the form of injunctions and prohibitions concerning desire for activity. And the Brhadaranyaka thereafter is devoted to the revelation of the Vedic purport concerning renunciation of activity. In this connection, the verse, 'He who knows these two-vidya and avidya-together, attains ammortality through vidya, by crossing over death through avidya (11), has been cited for the person who wants to live by doing rites-beginning from conception and ending in death-in conjunction with meditation on the lower Brahman. Now, then, the question, 'By what route will he achieve immortality?' is being answered. 'Now, That which is the Truth (Brahman), is that sun-who is the Person in this solar, orb, as also this Person in the right eye' (Br.V. v. 2)-he who has meditated on both these (Persons) as the Truth-Brahman and performed the rites as mentioned (in the scriptures), prays at the time of death to that (Sun) which is Truth by nature, for the door leading to the Self, in the verse: 'The face of Truth is concealed with a golden vessel', etc.

15. Hiranmaya means golden, appearing as though made of gold, i.e. resplendent; by that, patrena, by the vessel, which is like a lid that hides from view; apihitam, is concealed, covered; mukham, the face, the door; satyasya, of Truth, of that very Brahman who is in the solar orb. Tat tvam pusan, that thou, O sun; apavrnu, do open, remove. I who have got the quality of Truth, by meditating on you as Truth, am satyadharma; so satyadharmaya means, for my sake who am of that kind (truthful); or it means, for the sake of one (i.e. me) who performs the rightful duties. Drstaye, so as to be seen; so that you who are Truth by nature may be realized.

16. Pusan, O Sun! The Sun is the pusa, nourisher, because he nourishes the world. Similarly, he travels alone (ekarsat); hence he is ekarsi. Ekarse, O solitary traveller. So also he is yama, controller, because of controlling (samyamanat) all; O controller. Likewise he is surya, acquirer, because of securing to himself (svikaranat) all rays, vital forces, and liquids; O acquirer. The son of Prajapati is prajapatya; O son of Prajapati. Vyuha, remove; thy own rasmin, rays; samuha, gather up, withdraw; thy tejah, heat, the oppressive dazzle. Yat te, that which is thy; rupam kalyanatamam, most benign, most graceful, form; tat, that; pasyami, I shall see; by te, thy-thy grace, who art the Self. Moreover, I do not entreat thee like a servant; yah asau, the Person who is there, in the solar orb-whose limbs are the vyahrtis [Bhuh (earth) is his head; bhuvah (sky) his hands; svah (heaven) his feet (Br. V. v. 3-4)], and who is called a Person (Purusa) because he has the figure of a person; or because by him, in the form of the vital forces and intelligence, the whole world is filled; or because he resides in the city (of the heart)-; sah aham asmi, that Person am I.

17. Atha, now; as I am dying, let my vayuh, vital force; give up its physical limitation and attain its divine nature which is the all-pervading, amrtam anilam, immortal Air, i.e. the sutratma (Hiranyagarbha). The word 'attain' has to be supplied to complete the sentence. The idea, 'And let this subtle body, purified by rites and meditation, ascend', is also understood, by virtue of the solicitation for the path (to ascend by). Atha, now; idam sariram, this body, being offered as an oblation to fire; bhasmantam, may be reduced to ashes. Since Brahman has Om as Its symbol, therefore, consonantly with the meditation followed (by the dying man), Brahman, which called Fire and is Truth by nature, is presented here as identical with Om. Krato, O mind, whose characteristic is volition; smara, (you) remember; the time has arrived when all that has to be remembered by me should be remembered; therefore (you) remember all that has been thought of so long. And O Fire, [In the space of krtamagne, another reading is 'krtamagre, whatever has been done earlier'.] smara, remember; krtam, whatever work has been done from my childhood; that too, do thou remember. Krato smara, krtam smara-this repetition implies earnestness.
He prays for the path again throught another verse:

18. Agne, O Fire; deva, O god; vidvan, knowing; visvanivayunani, all deeds or meditations; naya, lead; asman, us-who are endowed with the aforesaid fruits of virtue; supatha, by the good path. The attribute 'good path' is used for eschewing the Southern Path (Pitryana). I am disgusted with the Southern Path which is characterized by going and coming; hence I entreat thee again and again, 'Lead by the good path which is free from going and coming.' Raye means, for the sake of wealth, i.e. for the enjoyment of the fruits of deeds. Moreover, yuyodhi, remove, destroy; asmat, (i.e.) asmattah, from us; juhuranam, crooked, deceitful; enah, sin. The idea is this: Becoming purified thereby we shall achieve our desired object. But (as) at present we cannot render any service to thee, (so) te, to thee; bhuyistham, many; namah uktim, words of salutation; vidhema, we offer-i.e. we serve thee with salutations.

(A doubt): Some people are filled with doubt at hearing the texts: 'Crossing over death through avidya, attains immortality through vidya' (11), and 'Crossing death through Destruction, attains immortality through the Unmanifested' (14). Hence to remove that doubt, we shall discuss (the topic) in brief. Now, then, the reason why the doubt arises is being stated: 'By the word vidya, why should not the knowledge of the supreme Self itself, in the primary sense, be understood; and so also (why should not) immortality (be taken in the primary sense)?'
Answer: Is it not a fact that by reason of the opposition between the aforesaid knowledge of the supreme Self and karma, there is no possibility of combination?

Objection: True. But the opposition is not comprehended, because opposition or agreement rests on the authority of scriptures. Just as the performance of avidya (karma) and the pursuit of knowledge rest on the authority of the scriptures, so also do their opposition and agreement. Just as the prohibition, 'Do not kill any living thing', learnt from scripture, is over ridden by the injunction, 'One should kill an animal in a sacrifice', so also it is possible in the case of avidya (karma) and knowledge that karma and knowledge are to be combined.
Answer: No (they cannot be combined), because of the Vedic text: 'What are known as vidya (knowledge) and avidya (karma) are entirely different, and they follow different courses' (Ka. I. ii. 4).

Objection: Suppose we say that, on the authority of the text, ,He who knows vidya and avidya together' (11), there is no antagonism.
Answer: No, because of the opposition involved in (their) causes, natures, and results.
Objection: Since (on the one hand) the opposition or non-opposition between vidya (knowledge) and avidya (karma) cannot stand as alternatives, and since (on the other hand) their combination is enjoined (here), may we not argue that there is (really) no contradiction (between them)?
Answer: No, since their co-existence is absurd.

Objection: Suppose we say that vidya (knowledge) and avidya (karma) may cohere in the same person successively.
Answer: No. ['If the succession consists in ignorance (avidya, karma, being earlier and knowledge (vidya) later, then it is certainly admitted. But if ignorance is later (than knowledge) then it is impossible.'-A.G.] For when vidya (knowledge) arises, avidya (karma) vanishes, since in the person in whom there is knowledge, avidya (karma) cannot remain. Indeed, it is a fact that when the knowledge, 'Fire is hot and effulgent', has arisen in a person, then in that very person, in whom that knowledge has dawned, cannot arise the ignorance or doubt or error (of the form), 'Fire is cold or non-illuminating'. On the authority of the text, 'When to the man of realization all beings become the very Self, then what delusion and what sorrow can there be for that seer of oneness' (7), which declares sorrow, delusion, etc., as impossible (for a man of knowledge), we have said that since avidya (ignorance) is impossible (for such a man), karma which originates from ignorance is also impossible.

As for the text, 'He attains immortality', (14) the immortality is a relative thing. If the knowledge of the supreme Self is understood by the world vidya, the prayer for the path etc. in the text, 'The facr of Truth (Brahman) is covered,' etc. (15) becomes irreconcilable. [For there can be no going or coming for a knower of Brahman, who becomes all by becoming Brahman Itself.] Accordingly, the combination (of avidya, karma) is with meditation and not with the knowledge of the supreme Self. Thus, we conclude by remarking that the meaning of the verses is just as we have interpreted.
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